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Summer Time and Electricity Conservation: The Israeli Case

Haim Shore

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No2-4
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Abstract:
Summer Time (ST) refers to the practice of advancing the clock during the summer (commonly by one hour) in order to adjust it to changes of sunrise and sunset times at that period. Conventionally, ST is expected to accomplish three objectives: To reduce electricity consumption during dark evening hours.To reduce use of air conditioning systems during the morning. This effect,the result of an additional cool hour, is partially offset by an increasedconsumption of electricity for lighting during very early morning hours. To increase productivity (particularly in the industrial sectors that are notair-conditioned) following an additional cool hour in the morning.



Energy and Economic Effects of Utility Financial Incentive Programs: The BPA Residential Weatherization Program

Eric Hirst

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No2-7
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Abstract:
Many electric utilities offer their residential customers substantial financial incentives (low-interest loans or rebates) to install energy-efficient equipment and building retrofit measures (Stern, Berry, and Hirst 1985). For example, the Tennessee Valley Authority gave zero-interest loans to almost 500,000 households between 1977 and 1985; these loans average almost $1000 each for installation of retrofit measures (TVA 1985). Pacific Gas and Electric Company spent almost $100 million on administrative and debt service costs for its residential retrofit loan program, in which about 500,000 households participated (California PLC 1984).



The "Most Value" Test: Economic Evaluation of Electricity Demand-Side Management Considering Customer Value

Benjamin F. Hobbs

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No2-5
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Abstract:
What measure of economic efficiency is appropriate for evaluating demand-side management (DSM) programs sponsored by electric utilities? Most regulatory commissions in the United States require that utilities assess the efficiency of alternative programs as part of their planning process. A criterion based upon maximization of consumer surplus is proposed. This, the "most value" test not only counts the avoided supply cost and environmental benefits of such programs, but also the changes in customer value that result from rebound/takeback and changes in electric rates. The test can be viewed as an extension of the "least cost" test, which many commissions now require utilities to use. Among the "most value" test's practical implications is the fact that the net benefits of DSM will often be decreased if free riders are present or if electric rates must increase to fund the program. The "least cost" test wrongly assumesthese effects to be merely matters of income transfer. Consequently, some programs that are desirable from a "least cost" standpoint will not be beneficialfrom a most value"point of view. However, if rebound effects are large enough, the opposite can happen: some DSM programs which are apparently too costlywill actually have positive net benefits. These conclusions apply not only to programs for conserving electricity, but also to water and natural gas conservationefforts and programs that promote energy use.



How Many Kilowatts are in a Negawatt? Verifying Ex Post Estimates of Utility Conservation Impacts at the Regional Level

Paul W. Parfomak and Lester B. Lave

Year: 1996
Volume: Volume17
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol17-No4-3
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Abstract:
The current movement toward utility restructuring raises questions about the future of utility conservation programs, which have long suffered from illinformed and conflicting perceptions about their ability to affect customer loads. Controversy has arisen because of the inherent difficulty in measuring conservation impacts and because utilities have had clear economic incentives to overestimate impacts. This study uses econometric techniques to examine the aggregate commercial and industrial conservation impacts reported expost by 39 utilities in the Northeast U.S. and California through 1993. The study finds that 99.4% of the reported conservation impacts are statistically observable in system level sales after accounting for economic and weather effects. The results indicate that utility-run conservation programs have, indeed, been effective in reducing customer loads. The study finds no evidence the utilities have systematically overstated conservation effects.





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