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Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in the Second Generation Model

Allen A. Fawcett and Ronald D. Sands

Year: 2006
Volume: Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy
Number: Special Issue #3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-VolSI2006-NoSI3-15
View Abstract

Abstract:
The Second Generation Model (SGM) was developed to analyze policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper documents how greenhouse gas emissions are calculated in the SGM, and provides an application to several Energy Modeling Forum scenarios that stabilize radiative forcing by using policies that either exclusively limit CO2 emissions or include both CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gases. Additionally, this paper discusses an extension which includes advanced fossil generating technologies with CO2 capture and storage in the USA region of the SGM.



Introduction to EMF 24

Allen A. Fawcett, Leon E. Clarke, and John P. Weyant

Year: 2014
Volume: Volume 35
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.35.SI1.1
No Abstract



Technology and U.S. Emissions Reductions Goals: Results of the EMF 24 Modeling Exercise

Leon E. Clarke, Allen A. Fawcett, John P. Weyant, James McFarland, Vaibhav Chaturvedi, and Yuyu Zhou

Year: 2014
Volume: Volume 35
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.35.SI1.2
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper presents an overview of the study design and the results of the EMF 24 U.S. Technology Scenarios. The EMF 24 U.S. Technology Scenarios engaged nine top energy-environment-economy models to examine the implications of technological improvements and technological availability for reducing U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by 50% and 80% by 2050. The study confirms that mitigation at the 50% or 80% level will require a dramatic transformation of the energy system over the next 40 years. The study also corroborates the result of previous studies that there is a large variation among models in terms of which energy strategy is considered most cost-effective. Technology assumptions are found to have a large influence on carbon prices and economic costs of mitigation. Keywords: Technology, scenarios, climate change



Overview of EMF 24 Policy Scenarios

Allen A. Fawcett, Leon C. Clarke, Sebastian Rausch, and John P. Weyant

Year: 2014
Volume: Volume 35
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.35.SI1.3
View Abstract

Abstract:
The Energy Modeling Forum 24 study included a set of policy scenarios designed to compare economy wide market-based and sectoral regulatory approaches of potential U.S. climate policy. Models from seven teams participated in this part of the study assessing economy-wide cap-and-trade climate policy and sectoral policies in the transportation and electric sector in terms of potential greenhouse gas emissions reductions, economic cost, and energy systems implications. This paper presents an overview of the results from the U.S. policy scenarios, and provides insights into the comparison of results from the participating models. In particular, various metrics were used to compare the model results including allowance price, the efficient frontier, consumption loss, GDP loss, and equivalent variation. We find that the choice of economic metric is an important factor in the comparison of model results. Among the insights, we note that the carbon price should cautiously be considered when other non-cap sectoral policies affecting emissions are assumed in tandem. We also find that a transportation sector policy is consistently shown to be inefficient compared to an economy-wide capand-trade policy with a comparable level of emissions reductions. Keywords: Climate policy, Energy-economy modeling, Sectoral climate policies, Policy interaction



Investigating Technology Options for Climate Policies: Differentiated Roles in ADAGE

Martin T. Ross, Patrick T. Sullivan, Allen A. Fawcett, and Brooks M. Depro

Year: 2014
Volume: Volume 35
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.35.SI1.7
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper examines a range of technological and regulatory approaches to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Availability of new technologies will control how the economy and energy infrastructure respond to any future climate policies. How such policies interact with other types of environmental regulations will also influence the best options for meeting emissions goals. To investigate these effects, the ADAGE model is used to examine policy impacts for several climate and technology scenarios, focusing on key factors such as emissions, technology deployment, energy prices and macroeconomic indicators. In general, the simulations indicate that reductions in GHG emissions can be accomplished with limited economic adjustments, although the impacts depend on both the regulatory approaches used and the future availability of new low-carbon technologies. Keywords: Climate change, Computable general equilibrium, Electricity, Capand-trade, Renewable energy standards, Clean energy standards, Greenhouse gas emissions





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