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Overview of EMF 24 Policy Scenarios

The Energy Modeling Forum 24 study included a set of policy scenarios designed to compare economy wide market-based and sectoral regulatory approaches of potential U.S. climate policy. Models from seven teams participated in this part of the study assessing economy-wide cap-and-trade climate policy and sectoral policies in the transportation and electric sector in terms of potential greenhouse gas emissions reductions, economic cost, and energy systems implications. This paper presents an overview of the results from the U.S. policy scenarios, and provides insights into the comparison of results from the participating models. In particular, various metrics were used to compare the model results including allowance price, the efficient frontier, consumption loss, GDP loss, and equivalent variation. We find that the choice of economic metric is an important factor in the comparison of model results. Among the insights, we note that the carbon price should cautiously be considered when other non-cap sectoral policies affecting emissions are assumed in tandem. We also find that a transportation sector policy is consistently shown to be inefficient compared to an economy-wide capand-trade policy with a comparable level of emissions reductions. Keywords: Climate policy, Energy-economy modeling, Sectoral climate policies, Policy interaction

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JEL Codes: Q54: Climate; Natural Disasters and Their Management; Global Warming, Q42: Alternative Energy Sources, Q41: Energy: Demand and Supply; Prices, Q53: Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling, Q16: Agricultural R&D; Agricultural Technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services

Keywords: Climate policy, Energy-economy modeling, Sectoral climate policies, Policy interaction

DOI: 10.5547/01956574.35.SI1.3

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Published in Volume 35, Special Issue of the bi-monthly journal of the IAEE's Energy Economics Education Foundation.


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