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Energy Journal Issue

The Energy Journal
Volume 39, Number 6



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Market Power with Tradable Performance-Based CO2 Emission Standards in the Electricity Sector

Yihsu Chen, Makoto Tanaka, and Afzal S. Siddiqui

DOI: 10.5547/01956574.39.6.yche

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Abstract:
The U.S. Clean Power Plan stipulates a state-specific performance-based CO2 emission standard, delegating states with considerable flexibility for using either a tradable performance-based or a mass-based permit program. This paper analyzes these two standards under imperfect competitive. We limit our attention to (1) short-run analyses and (2) a situation in which all states are subject to the same type of standard. We show that while the cross-subsidy inherent in the performance-based standard might effectively reduce power prices, it could also inflate energy consumption. A dominant firm with a relatively clean endowment under the performance-based standard would be able to manipulate the electricity market as well as to elevate permit prices, which might worsen market outcomes compared to its mass-based counterpart. On the other hand, the "cross-subsidy" could be the dominant force leading to a higher social welfare if the leader has a relatively dirty endowment.




Cleaner Nudges? Policy Labels and Investment Decision-making

Ian Lange, Mirko Moro, and Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman

DOI: 10.5547/01956574.39.6.ilan

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Abstract:
Recent evidence suggests that labeling of unconditional cash transfers leads recipients to spend more on the labeled good. In this paper we show that the Winter Fuel Payment, an unconditional cash transfer, has distortionary effects on the market for goods related to the labeled product, renewable technologies. Using a Regression Discontinuity Design this analysis finds a robust reduction in the probability to install renewable energy technologies of 1.2 percentage points. Falsification tests support the labeling hypothesis. As a result, households use too much energy from sources which generate pollution and too little from relatively cleaner technologies.




Firm-level Estimates of Fuel Substitution: An Application to Carbon Pricing

Marie Hyland* and Stefanie Haller

DOI: 10.5547/01956574.39.6.mhyl

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Abstract:
We estimate partial and total own and cross price elasticities between electricity, gas and oil, using firm-level data. We find that, based on the partial elasticity measure, electricity is the least-responsive fuel to changes in its own price and in the price of other fuels. The total elasticity measure, which adjusts the partial elasticity for changes in aggregate energy demand induced by individual fuel price changes, reveals that the demand for electricity is much more price responsive than the partial elasticity suggests. Our results illustrate the importance of accounting for the feedback effect between interfactor and interfuel elasticities when considering the effectiveness of environmental taxation. We use the estimated elasticities to simulate the impact of a �15/tCO2 carbon tax on average energy-related CO2 emissions. The carbon tax results in a small reduction in CO2 emissions from oil and gas use, but this reduction is partially offset by an increase in emissions due to increased electricity consumption by some firms.