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Energy Journal Issue

The Energy Journal
Volume 3, Number 3

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Energy Efficiency and Productive Efficiency: Some Thoughts Based on American Experience

Sam H. Schurr

DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No3-1View Abstract

I am greatly honored to be the first recipient of the IAEE awards for contributions to the literature of energy economics and for service to the profession, and I want to express my deep apprecia-tion to the membership of the Association. The awards citation was very generous. Its reference to my early work in energy economics as having made fundamental contributions to the literature makes me less apologetic than might otherwise be the case for using this occasion to revisit (and partially update) some research that was first written up in a book published more than 20 years ago. Those findings, it seems to me, carry lessons for understanding problems that confrontus today, perhaps even more so now than in the comparatively tran-quil U.S, energy setting of the mid-1950s, when my colleagues and I were originally doing the research.

European Reliance on Soviet Gas Exports: The Yamburg-Urengoi Natural Gas Project

Boyce L Greer and Jeremy L. Russell

DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No3-2View Abstract

Editor's Note: The proposal to construct a giant pipeline to transmit natural gas from the Soviet Union to Western Europe has received wide attention on both sides of the Atlantic. Its implications extend into all aspects of East-West relations, including security and economic effects on both the Soviet Union and the gas-importing countries. This article focuses on one main area of concern raised by the pipeline, dependence by Western Europe on Soviet gas. Given the controversial nature of the subject, we are especially interested in comments from our readers.

Domestic Energy: A Forgotten Factor in Simple Energy-Economy Models

Stephen C. Peck and John L. Solow

DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No3-3View Abstract

This paper focuses on the impacts of changes in world energy prices on an energy-importing economy such as the United States. To this end, we use a simple energy-economy model developed by Sweeney [7] and having affinities to the earlier work of Hogan and Manne [5]. This model takes explicit account of the fact that the U.S. energy sector is linked to the rest of the world and that the United States is a net importer of energy. Comparative static analysis of this model enables us to pinpoint the most important parameters in the determination of relative price effects on the domestic economy. We show that the presence of energy consumption taxes and energy production subsidies does not affect the impacts of changes in world energy prices on national output.

Sources of Productivity Decline in U.S. Coal Mining, 1972-1977

William J. Kruvant, Carlisle E. Moody, Jr., and Patrick L. Valentine

DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No3-4View Abstract

In this paper we estimate production functions for surface and underground coal mines. These production functions are then used to estimate individual mine productivity, to explain productivity differentials across mines, and to assess the importance of several assumed sources of productivity decline in this industry. For readers not familiar with coal-mining operations, we first present a summary discussion of coal-mining technology.

Electricity Demand in Primary Aluminum Smelting

Knut Anton Mork

DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No3-5View Abstract

Primary aluminum smelting is one of the giant energy users among the manufacturing industries. With current technology, the smelting is done by an electrolytic process requiring as much as 13 to 19 megawatt-hours (MWh) of direct-current electricity per metric ton of aluminum metal.

Costs and Benefits of Residential Time-of-Use Metering

David Huettner, Jack Kasulis, and Neil Dikeman

DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No3-6View Abstract

During the past few years interest in time-of-day (TOD) pricing has grown in the electric utility industry. Federal regulations, par-ticularly the Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA), plant licensing problems, and the extremely high cost of new utility plants along with regulatory commission unwillingness to pass on higher costs to consumers have all played a part in this process. As the results of various TOD experiments have become available, interest has naturally turned to assessing costs and benefits.

Testing the Joint Billing Effect Hypothesis

Dennis M. Keane and Dennis J. Aigner

DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No3-7View Abstract

With the recent national emphasis on energy conservation, greater attention has been focused on the ability of natural gas and electric utilities to induce customers to alter their consumption habits through pricing policies. As a consequence, a great deal of research has been done recently aimed to measure residential households' consumption responses to changes in energy prices. One of the important unresolved issues arising from this research concerns the possible existence of a subset of households that, because of the way they purchase their energy inputs, behave differently from other households.