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Energy and Carbon Dynamics at Advanced Stages of Development: An Analysis of the U.S. States, 1960-1999

Abstract:
This paper explores the relationships among per capita income, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by focusing on a set of economies at advanced stages of development, the U.S. states. Energy consumption and emissions grew 50Ð60 percent on average over the 1960Ð1999 period. The statesÕ per capita energy consumption and emissions have grown on average 2 percent annually. The energy consumption income elasticity is positive but decreasing in income, although energy production takes an inverted-U shape, reflecting the electricity imports among high income states. The standard CO2 measure, corresponding to energy production, is characterized by an inverted-U environmental Kuznets curve. Adjusting emissions for interstate electricity trade yields an emissions-income relationship that peaks and plateaus. The carbon intensity of energy declines with income for total energy consumption and the industrial, residential, and commercial sectors.

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Energy Specializations: Energy and the Environment – Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases; Energy and the Environment – Environmental Market Design; Energy and the Environment – Policy and Regulation

JEL Codes: Q41: Energy: Demand and Supply; Prices, Q42: Alternative Energy Sources, Q54: Climate; Natural Disasters and Their Management; Global Warming

Keywords: CO2 emissions, Engle curve, Kuznets curve, cubic spline, Kaya identity, US

DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol28-No1-5

Published in Volume 28, Number 1 of the bi-monthly journal of the IAEE's Energy Economics Education Foundation.

 

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