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Notes - Sense and Nonsense About World Oil

M. A. Adelman

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No1-13
No Abstract



Notes - A Comparison of the Costs and the Results in the On/Offshore Search for Oil and Gas

Jon A. Rasmussen and Michael J. Piette

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No1-11
No Abstract



Notes - Public Willingness to Invest in Household Weatherization

Marvin E. Olsen and Christopher Cluett

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No1-12
No Abstract







A Note on Rowen and Weyant,"Reducing the Economic Impacts of Oil Supply Interruptions: An International Perspective"

Harry D. Saunders

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No4-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
Henry Rowen and John Weyant (1982) commit the classic error of trying to answer an important policy question with tools that do not fit the job. Nor does their care in attaching explicit caveats to their conclusions overcome the fact that the limitations of their approach are serious.The question of oil supply disruptions and their potential economic impact is indeed important, and it remains so despite slack oil markets. Policymakers may yet be faced with situations that require them to decide quickly on the advisability of emergency tariffs and other such measures; and they will need reasonable assurances that the caveats analysts attach to policy recommendations do not overwhelm the recommendations themselves. Just such a danger is inherent in the inappropriate application of models and the application of inappropriate models.



Pareto Dominance Through Self-Selecting Tariffs: The Case of TOU Electricity Rates for Agricultural Customers

Kenneth E. Train and Nate Toyama

Year: 1989
Volume: Volume 10
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol10-No1-8
View Abstract

Abstract:
We estimate the impact of a voluntary time-of-use (TOU) rate option for electricity used in agricultural pumping. We find that offering the TOU tariff in addition to standard, non-TOU rates increases the profits of the electric utility and Pareto dominates the offering of standard rates alone. The analysis provides an example of the fact that Pareto improvements can be obtained by judiciously expanding the set of self-selecting tariffs offered by a public utility.



Nonlinear Pricing and Tariff Differentiation: Evidence from the British Electricity Market

Stephen Davies, Catherine Waddams Price, and Chris M. Wilson

Year: 2014
Volume: Volume 35
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.35.1.4
View Abstract

Abstract:
Liberalisation of the British household electricity market, in which previously monopolised regional markets were exposed to large-scale entry, is used as a natural experiment on oligopolistic nonlinear pricing. Each oligopolist offered a single two-part electricity tariff, but inconsistent with current theory, the two-part tariffs were heterogeneous in ways that cannot be attributed to explanations such as asymmetric costs or variations in brand loyalty. Instead, the evidence suggests that firms deliberately differentiated their tariff structures, resulting in market segmentation according to consumers' usage.



On the Inequity of Flat-rate Electricity Tariffs

Paul Simshauser and David Downer

Year: 2016
Volume: Volume 37
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.37.3.psim
View Abstract

Abstract:
Proposals to reform default 'flat-rate' electricity tariffs are rarely met with enthusiasm by consumer groups or policymakers because they produce winners and losers. Proposals to initiate more cost-reflective time-of-use rates will be met with cautious interest if the basis of customer participation is 'opt-in'. Using the smart meter data of 160,000 residential customers from the Victorian region of Australia's National Electricity Market, our tariff model reveals that households in financial hardship are the most adversely affected from existing flat-rate structures. Even after network tariff rebalancing, Hardship and Concession & Pensioner Households are, on average, beneficiaries of more cost-reflective tariff structures once Demand Response is accounted for.



Integration of Renewables into the Ontario Electricity System

Brian Rivard and Adonis Yatchew

Year: 2016
Volume: Volume 37
Number: Bollino-Madlener Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.37.SI2.briv
View Abstract

Abstract:
The Ontario electricity industry has a 'hybrid' structure: electricity is bought and sold in a competitive wholesale electricity market while supply mix planning and procurement are conducted through a government agency. Most generation is secured through long-term contracts. Aggressive renewable energy programs have led to rapidly growing renewable capacity, mainly wind generation. Coal-fired generation has been eliminated and electricity sales have dropped. The competitive hourly market price has declined and there is a clear merit-order effect: an increase of wind generation from 500 MW to 1500 MW can be expected to decrease price by 7 CAD/MWh. However, the all-in price, which incorporates contractually guaranteed supply prices, has risen from about 60 to 100 CAD/MWh between 2009 and 2014. Operational and market integration of renewable resources has been achieved relatively smoothly. The procurement process is over-centralized: increased reliance on market discipline and greater separation between governmental policy makers and regulators would enhance both the efficacy and efficiency of decarbonization policies.



Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Production in Germany

Christoph Böhringer, Florian Landis, and Miguel Angel Tovar Reaños

Year: 2017
Volume: Volume 38
Number: KAPSARC Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.38.SI1.cboh
View Abstract

Abstract:
Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The flip side are very high electricity prices which raise concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analyses to investigate the economic impacts of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effects of renewable energy promotion could be attenuated by alternative subsidy financing mechanisms.



Pricing Electricity and Supporting Renewables in Heavily Energy Subsidized Economies

David M. Newbery

Year: 2017
Volume: Volume 38
Number: KAPSARC Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.38.SI1.dnew
View Abstract

Abstract:
Heavily Energy Subsidized Economies' energy subsidies cost the budget on average 4% of GDP in 2014. Resource rents permit administratively undemanding transfers to citizens to maintain political support, whose removal will be resisted, despite resulting inefficient consumption and lock-in risk. Collapsing energy prices delivering severe fiscal shocks combined with growing concerns over climate change damage make carefully designed reforms both urgent and politically more acceptable. Political logic suggests designing reforms that compensate vocal interest groups. The paper presents evidence on the magnitude and impacts of oil, gas and electricity subsidies, and discusses how the electricity sector can be weaned off subsidies, enabling CCGTs and unsubsidized renewables to reduce carbon emissions.



Size, Subsidies and Technical Efficiency in Renewable Energy Production: The Case of Austrian Biogas Plants

Andreas Eder and Bernhard Mahlberg

Year: 2018
Volume: Volume 39
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.39.1.aede
View Abstract

Abstract:
This study estimates the efficiency of biogas plants and identifies determinants of inefficiencies. Data Envelopment Analysis is applied on a sample of 86 Austrian biogas plants for the year 2014, covering about one third of the installed electric capacity of Austrian biogas plants. We decompose technical efficiency into scale efficiency and pure technical efficiency (managerial efficiency). In a second-stage regression analysis the effects of subsidies and other variables on managerial efficiency are investigated. The main results are: i) 34% of biogas plants in our sample are technically efficient, 40% are scale efficient and 50% are managerial efficient; ii) small biogas plants (≤100 kW) are scale inefficient exhibiting increasing returns to scale; iii) production subsidies show a significant, negative relationship to managerial efficiency. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that production subsidies provide a disincentive to managerial effort of plant operators.



What future(s) for liberalized electricity markets: efficient, equitable or innovative?

David M Newbery

Year: 2018
Volume: Volume 39
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.39.1.dnew
View Abstract

Abstract:
Well-designed electricity liberalization has delivered effciency gains, but political risks of decarbonizing the sector have undermined investment incentives in en-ergy-only markets, while poorly designed regulated tariffs have increased the cost of accommodating renewables. The paper sets out principles from theory and public economics to guide market design, capacity remuneration, renewables support and regulatory tariff setting, with an illustration from a high capital cost low variable cost electricity system. Such characteristics are likely to become more prevalent with increasing renewables penetration, where poor regulation is already threatening current utility business models. The appendix develops and applies a method for determining the subsidy justifed by learning spillovers from solar PV.




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