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Futures Trading and the European Oil Market

Peter J. W. N. Bird

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No3-8
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Abstract:
The subject of this paper is the behavior of daily gas oil futures prices on the London-based International Petroleum Exchange (IPE). It reports results consistent with the hypothesis that prices on the IPE follow a random walk.



Risk Premiums and Efficiency in the Market for Crude Oil Futures

Richard Deaves and Itzhak Krinsky

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No2-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
The New York Mercantile Exchange's Crude Oil futures contract is investigated for the existence and nature of risk premiums and informational efficiency. During 1983-90, there is some evidence that short-term premiums were positive and covaried with recent volatility. As for efficiency, we find nothing inconsistent with weak-form efficiency, but some apparent violations cf semi-strong efficiency. We argue that, for a number of reasons, such rejections should be interpreted with caution.



The Role of Futures and Other Energy-Linked Financial Instruments

Mau Rogers and John Elting Treat

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume 15
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-NoSI-15
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Abstract:
Significant volatility has become a way of life in the oil markets. Traders find this level of market volatility attractive. Managers find the uncertainty inherent in this complex and volatile environment both unsettling and expensive. It creates significant economic risk, managerial risk, and capabilities risk. The dramatic explosion in the size and sophistication of oil-linked financial instruments represents a response to volatility. These markets have forced companies to adopt new strategies, business processes, information systems, and organizational structures to remain competitive. We expect the future will see many oil-linked financial markets and products which will provide new risk management tools. These trends will reward firms that can successfully manage risks associated with credit, liquidity, complexity, and financial evaluation.



Implied Volatility of Oil Futures Options Surrounding OPEC Meetings

Stephen M. Horan, Jeffrey H. Peterson, and James Mahar

Year: 2004
Volume: Volume 25
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol25-No3-6
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Abstract:
This study examines implied volatility from options on crude oil futures surrounding OPEC meetings. Studies suggest that the implied volatility embedded in option prices should drift upward prior to scheduled information releases and drop afterward. As predicted, volatility drifts upward as the meeting approaches and drops by three percent after the first day of the meeting and by five percent over a five-day window period. Surprisingly, highly visible bi-annual conferences experience little drop in volatility. Rather, the most pronounced decline in volatility is associated with meetings of the Ministerial Monitoring Committee, which makes production recommendations to the larger conference. The results have implications for the debate about whether OPEC influences oil prices and provide an explanation for previously documented return anomalies in crude oil futures surrounding OPEC meetings.



Examining Asymmetric Behavior in US Petroleum Futures and Spot Prices

Bradley T. Ewing, Shawkat M. Hammoudeh and Mark A. Thompson

Year: 2006
Volume: Volume 27
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol27-No3-2
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Abstract:
This paper uses the momentum-threshold autoregressive (M-TAR) model to examine the possible asymmetric relationship between petroleum futures and spot prices for three different markets: crude oil, heating oil, and gasoline in the United States. The results indicate that the futures and spot prices for each petroleum type are cointegrated when allowing for asymmetric adjustment for each of these energy markets. We further investigate the asymmetric behavior between the futures and spot prices by estimating the M-TAR error-correction model. The M-TAR model allows us to document the adjustments that these markets undergo in response to changes in the basis.



Forecasting Nonlinear Crude Oil Futures Prices

Saeed Moshiri and Faezeh Foroutan

Year: 2006
Volume: Volume 27
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol27-No4-4
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Abstract:
The movements in oil prices are very complex and, therefore, seem to be unpredictable. However, one of the main challenges facing econometric models is to forecast such seemingly unpredictable economic series. Traditional linear structural models have not been promising when used for oil price forecasting. Although linear and nonlinear time series models have performed much better in forecasting oil prices, there is still room for improvement. If the data generating process is nonlinear, applying linear models could result in large forecast errors. Model specification in nonlinear modeling, however, can be very case dependent and time-consuming.In this paper, we model and forecast daily crude oil futures prices from 1983 to 2003, listed in NYMEX, applying ARIMA and GARCH models. We then test for chaos using embedding dimension, BDS(L), Lyapunov exponent, and neural networks tests. Finally, we set up a nonlinear and flexible ANN model to forecast the series. Since the test results indicate that crude oil futures prices follow a complex nonlinear dynamic process, we expect that the ANN model will improve forecasting accuracy. A comparison of the results of the forecasts among different models confirms that this is indeed the case.



Fundamental and Financial Influences on the Co-movement of Oil and Gas Prices

Derek Bunn, Julien Chevallier, Yannick Le Pen, and Benoit Sevi

Year: 2017
Volume: Volume 38
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.38.2.dbun
View Abstract

Abstract:
As speculative flows into commodity futures are expected to link commodity prices more strongly to equity indices, we investigate whether this process also creates increased correlations amongst the commodities themselves. Considering U.S. oil and gas futures, we investigate whether common factors, derived from a large international data set of real and nominal macroeconomic variables by means of the large approximate factor models methodology, are able to explain both returns and whether, beyond these fundamental common factors, the residuals remain correlated. We further investigate a possible explanation for this residual correlation by using some proxies for trading intensity derived from CFTC publicly available data, showing most notably that the proxy for speculation in the oil market increases the oil-gas correlation. We thus identify the central role of financial activities in shaping the link between oil and gas returns.



Informed Trading in the WTI Oil Futures Market

Olivier Rousse and Benoit Sevi

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.2.orou
View Abstract

Abstract:
The weekly release of the U.S. inventory level by the DOE-EIA is known as the market mover in the U.S. oil futures market. We uncover suspicious trading patterns in the WTI futures markets in days when the inventory level is released that are higher than market forecasts: there are significantly more orders initiated by buyers in the two hours preceding the official release of the inventory level, with a drop in the average price of -0.25% ahead of the news release. This finding is consistent with informed trading. We also provide evidence of an asymmetric response of the oil price to oil-inventory news, and highlight an over-reaction that is partly compensated in the hours following the announcement.





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