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Residential Electricity Demand: A Suggested Appliance Stock Equation

Christopher Garbacz

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No2-11
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Abstract:
A large amount of work in residential electricity demand has relied on logit estimation of a disaggregated appliance stock. (See the seminal work by McFadden et al., 1977.) While this approach may be suitable for certain types of models with certain goals in mind, a simple formulation of an appliance stock equation may sometimes be appropriate. For example, if the goal is to estimate seasonal patterns in elasticities employing a national micro-data set (as in the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey 1978-1979; see U.S. Department of Energy, 1980), then it may be appropriate to develop an appliance stock equation to predict the size of an appliance stock index (approximating a continuous variable). The present appliance stock equation is part of a three-equation model that is estimated in log-linear form via 2SLS.



A Comparison of Multivariate Logit and Translog Models for Energy and Nonenergy Input Cost Share Analysis

Thomas J. Lutton and Michael R. LeBlanc

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No4-3
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Abstract:
With the advent of the translogarithmic (translog) cost function has come greater interest in estimating systems of input share equations (Christensen and Greene, 1976; Berndt and Wood, 1975). A distinguishing feature of the translog cost function is that optimal input shares are linear in parameters. The linearity arises from the second-order approximation and facilitates estimation of the share system. Linearity, however may result in negative fitted shares if error terms are assumed to be additive and normally distributed. Woodland (1979) demonstrated that maximum likelihood estimators with an underlying Dirichlet distribution constrain fitted shares to be inside the zero-one interval for the sample. However, it is possible to obtain shares outside the zero-one interval when the model is used for forecasting. Moreover, there is no theoretical reason why input shares should be monotonic in input prices. If a third-order Taylor series expansion is assumed, the monotonicity restriction can be relaxed, but such an assumption sacrifices the principle of parametric parsimony (Fuss et al., 1978).



Will Mandatory Conservation Promote Energy Efficiency in the Selection of Household Appliance Stocks?

Jeffrey A. Dubin

Year: 1986
Volume: Volume 7
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol7-No1-7
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Abstract:
This paper estimates a nested logit model for space heat and water heat choice using data from the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS) by the Department of Energy in 1978. (See Dubin, 1983) for references to the data set and a detailed discussion of procedures used to prepare the data for economic analysis.) The use of micro-level disaggregated survey data to estimate discrete choice models of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has been very recent, but one can find a few related models in Dubin and McFadden (1984), Brownstone (1980), Goett (1979), Hausman (1979), and McFadden, Puig, and Kirschner (1977). One of the virtues of the structure developed here is that it has been embedded successfully in a larger micro-simulation system (the Residential End-Use Energy Policy System (REEPS)) for purposes of policy forecasting (Goett [1979]).



Estimating Consumer Energy Demand Using International Data: Theoretical and Policy Implications

Dale S. Rothman, J. Ho Hong and Timothy D. Mount

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume15
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-No2-4
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Abstract:
In this paper, consumer energy demand is estimated as part of a complete demand system using a consistent set of international data on prices, and expenditures for 53 countries ranging from the poorest to the wealthiest. We compare three models: the Translog, the Deaton-Muellbauer Almost Ideal! Demand System (DM), and the Generalized Logit (Logit), and two levels of commodity aggregation (6-good and 9-good). The estimation results indicate that the model specification and level of aggregation are important. The Logit model performs better than the Translog and D-M models which provide illogical! elasticity estimates for many countries. The 9-good model shows that the demand for electricity is significantly more price and income elastic than the demand for primary energy.



Willingness to Pay for Improved Quality of Electricity Supply Across Business Type and Location

Mark Morrison and Craig Nalder

Year: 2009
Volume: Volume 30
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol30-No2-6
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Abstract:
Regulatory authorities in many countries are experimenting with mechanisms for providing electricity distributors with financial incentives to improve quality of supply. In designing these incentives it is apparent that customers preferences have rarely been obtained for consideration in the regulatory process. As a result, there is relatively limited understanding of customers willingness to pay for improved quality of electricity supply. Several studies have examined the willingness of households to pay for improved quality of electricity supply, however, few studies have examined the willingness of businesses to pay for improved quality of supply. In this study we use choice modelling with random parameters logit models to identify the willingness to pay of business for various service related attributes. Furthermore, we examine the values held by both service and manufacturing businesses, from both rural/ regional and urban areas, and observe the differences between them. We find several differences in willingness to pay across business types and locations, however overall the value estimates are relatively homogeneous.



Why Consumers Switch Energy Suppliers: The Role of Individual Attitudes

Xiaoping He and David Reiner

Year: 2017
Volume: Volume 38
Number: Number 6
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5547/01956574.38.6.hxia
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Abstract:
Since 2008, fewer customers switched suppliers in British electricity and gas markets despite the potential for financial gains, suggesting that psychological factors may affect switching behaviors. Using a unique nation-wide British survey, we explore the influence of consumers' attitudes and perceptions on switching behaviors and assess the differences in switching propensity across different groups. Support for simplifying energy tariffs, professed less difficulty in understanding energy bills, expected difficulty in changing suppliers and lack of attention to the issue of energy prices are associated with lower switching activity. At a time of high saliency, political party voting intention was strongly related to switching. Unlike the bivariate analyses conducted by the regulator and the competition authority, our multivariate analysis show few demographic factors affect the likelihood of switching except for educational attainment and tariff payment patterns. Remedies aiming to encourage switching cannot be targeted correctly unless the supporting analysis is robust to alternative model specifications.





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