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An Integrated Framework for Energy Pricing in Developing Countries

Mohan Munasinghe

Year: 1980
Volume: Volume 1
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol1-No3-1
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Abstract:
In recent years, decisionmakers in an increasing number of countries have realized that energy sector investment planning and pricing should be carried out on an integrated basis, e.g., within the framework of a national energy master plan that determines energy policy, ranging from short-run supply-demand management to long-run planning. However, in practice investment planning and pricing are still carried out on an ad hoc and at best partial or subsector basis. Thus, electricity and oil subsector planning have traditionally been carried out independent of each other as well as independent of other energy subsectors. As long as energy was cheap, such partial approaches and the resulting economic losses were acceptable, but lately, with rising energy costs and changes in relative fuel prices



A Welfare Approach to Energy Pricing: A Case Study for India

Gopal K. Kadekodi

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-1
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Abstract:
Because oil crises or other supply constraints distort energy production and demand management, energy pricing remains an important policy instrument of economic management. Moreover, for many developing countries, the problem of energy management includes the pricing of energy products within a framework of planning, as well as questions of supply. In many countries energy production and distribution are now publicly managed. Such public operations have to account for both efficiency in production and equity in distribution. The pricing of energy inputs thus emerges as a key planning parameter.



Oil Products in Latin America: The Politics of Energy Pricing

Thomas Sterner

Year: 1989
Volume: Volume 10
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol10-No2-4
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Abstract:
This paper looks at the pricing of petroleum products in Latin America and compares the policies adopted in countries with different endowments and with different traditions as to state involvement in the oil industry. I find that, in contrast to the OECD countries, product prices are used extensively as instruments of policy and that in general the more oil a country has the lower are its domestic prices. They also tend to be lower in the presence of state monopolies.



Energy Issues in Central and Eastern Europe: Considerations for International Financial Institutions

Joerg-Uwe Richter

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No3-12
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Abstract:
This paper reviews the main institutional, economic, and technical issues related to energy sector rehabilitation and development which the countries of Central and Eastern Europe face in the process of economic transformation. These issues concern the institutional weaknesses at the sectoral, subsectoral, and enterprise levels; remaining inadequacies in energy pricing; high energy intensity, low energy efficiency, and the related environmental degradation; and excessive dependence on energy imports from the former USSR.The Governments of the region are determined to introduce the reforms necessary for viable energy development. This is bound to be a substantial task that requires a coherent strategy with consistent policies and institutional measures. The most important ones are: establishing a pro-competition regulatory framework; restructuring energy enterprises, and enhancing the role of the private sector; setting energy prices that reflect economic costs; enhancing energy efficiency and environmental management of energy operations; improving the productivity of energy subsectors and enterprises through rehabilitation and technical modernization; and redirecting energy trade.Energy demand in the region may regain 1990-91 levels by the end of this decade. Nevertheless, investment requirements for rehabilitation and expansion over the next decade may total US$120-150 bn (in 1991 prices and exchange rates) for the region as a whole, which cannot be met without considerable international financial assistance.



Environmentally Responsible Energy Pricing

W. Kip Viscusi, Wesley A. Magat, Alan Carlin, and Mark K. Dreyfus

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume15
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-No2-2
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Abstract:
This paper assesses the value of the non-global warming externalities associated with energy use. The estimates of the full social cost energy prices based on this "no regrets" approach imply environmental costs that often greatly exceed current tax amounts. The midpoint estimates suggest that the price of coaI is most out of line with its efficient level. Natural gas is currently overtaxed, and gasoline is appropriately taxed. There is also a substantial range of uncertainty embodied in the no regrets estimates.





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