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The Value of Commodity Purchase Contracts With Limited Price Risk

Elizabeth Olmsted Teisberg and Thomas J. Teisberg

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No3-8
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Abstract:
This paper describes and demonstrates the equilibrium market valuation of commodity purchase contracts with price ceilings or price floors or both. These contracts, which we call "limited price risk" contracts, are significantly easier for buyers and sellers to agree upon than fixed price contracts when price uncertainty is high and buyers and sellers have inconsistent price expectations. Analysis of an actual natural gas contract as well as the existence of many brokers promoting limited price risk gas contracts, suggest that these contracts may be priced inefficiently in practice. Our example application should help managers to make use of modem financial techniques in assessing the value of these types of contracts.



The Dynamics of Commodity Spot and Futures Markets: A Primer

Robert S. Pindyck

Year: 2001
Volume: Volume22
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol22-No3-1
No Abstract



Understanding Crude Oil Prices

James D. Hamilton

Year: 2009
Volume: Volume 30
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol30-No2-9
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Abstract:
This paper examines the factors responsible for changes in crude oil prices. The paper reviews the statistical behavior of oil prices, relates this to the predictions of theory, and looks in detail at key features of petroleum demand and supply. Topics discussed include the role of commodity speculation, OPEC, and resource depletion. The paper concludes that although scarcity rent made a negligible contribution to the price of oil in 1997, it could now begin to play a role.



Do Speculators Drive Crude Oil Futures Prices?

Bahattin Buyuksahin and Jeffrey H. Harris

Year: 2011
Volume: Volume 32
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol32-No2-7
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Abstract:
The coincident rise in crude oil prices and increased number of financial participants in the crude oil futures market from 2000-2008 has led to allegations that "speculators" drive crude oil prices. As crude oil futures peaked at $147/ bbl in July 2008, the role of speculators came under heated debate. In this paper, we employ unique data from the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) to test the relation between crude oil prices and the trading positions of various types of traders in the crude oil futures market. We employ Granger Causality tests to analyze lead and lag relations between price and position data at daily and multiple day intervals. We find little evidence that hedge funds and other non-commercial (speculator) position changes Granger-cause price changes; the results instead suggest that price changes precede their position changes.



Measuring Index Investment in Commodity Futures Markets

Dwight R. Sanders and Scott H. Irwin

Year: 2013
Volume: Volume 34
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.34.3.6
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Abstract:
The "Masters Hypothesis" is the claim that unprecedented buying pressure in recent years from new index investment created a massive bubble in commodity futures prices. Due to data limitations, some recent studies of the market impact of index investment in the WTI crude oil futures market impute index positions. We investigate the accuracy of the algorithm popularized by Masters (2008) to estimate index positions. The estimates generated by the Masters algorithm deviate substantially from the positions reported in the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTC) Index Investment Data (IID) report--the agency's best data on index positions. The Masters algorithm over-estimates the gross WTI crude oil position by an average of 142,000 contracts. Importantly, the deviation in the first half of 2008, the period of greatest concern about the market impact of index investment, is directionally wrong. These results suggest empirical tests of market impact based on mapping algorithms in WTI crude oil futures should be viewed with considerable caution.



Physical Markets, Paper Markets and the WTI-Brent Spread

Bahattin Buyuksahin, Thomas K. Lee, James T. Moser, and Michel A. Robe

Year: 2013
Volume: Volume 34
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.34.3.7
View Abstract

Abstract:
We document that, starting in the Fall of 2008, the benchmark West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil has periodically traded at unheard-of discounts to the corresponding Brent benchmark. We further document that this discount is not reflected in spreads between Brent and other benchmarks that are directly comparable to WTI. Drawing on extant models linking oil inventory conditions to the futures term structure, we test empirically several conjectures about how calendar and commodity spreads (nearby vs. first-deferred WTI; nearby Brent vs. WTI) should move over time and be related to storage conditions at Cushing. We then investigate whether, after controlling for macroeconomic and physical market fundamentals, spread behavior is partly predicted by the aggregate oil futures positions of commodity index traders.



Energy and Agricultural Commodity Markets Interaction: An Analysis of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Corn, Soybean, and Ethanol Prices

Song-Zan Chiou-Wei, Sheng-Hung Chen, and Zhen Zhu

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.2.schi
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper broadens the analysis of the interactions between energy and agricultural commodity markets by focusing on five major commodities: oil, natural gas, soybean, corn, and ethanol, and intends to provide more updated information regarding the degree of the connection among the markets. We estimate a DCC-MGARCH model to accommodate the dynamic and changing degree of interconnections among the five markets with respect to price levels and price volatilities. In doing so, we control for additional economic variables including oil and gas inventories, interest rate spread, exchange rate and economic activities. Our empirical evidence suggests that there are varying degrees of interconnections among the energy and agricultural commodities in the long term as well as the short term, but the interactions among the agricultural commodities and ethanol are generally higher than the interactions between oil and gas and agricultural markets. In addition, we reveal some weak evidence of commodity market speculation. The estimated conditional volatility correlations suggest that volatility spillovers among the markets were time dependent and dynamic.



Understanding Dynamic Conditional Correlations between Oil, Natural Gas and Non-Energy Commodity Futures Markets

Niaz Bashiri Behmiri, Matteo Manera, and Marcella Nicolini

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.2.nbeh
View Abstract

Abstract:
We look at the dynamic conditional correlations (DCCs) between oil, natural gas and other non-energy commodity futures markets, obtained from a DCC-GARCH model over the period 1998-2014. They are positive and display a sharp increase around year 2008 and a subsequent decrease. The DCCs between energy and metals are larger than the energy-agriculture ones. To understand how macroeconomic and financial factors, as well as speculative activity, influence them, we estimate an ARDL(1,1) model, adopting a pooled mean group (PMG) estimator. We observe that macroeconomic and financial variables are significantly correlated with the energy-agriculture and energy-metals DCCs. Speculative activity contributes to explain the energy-agriculture DCCs but not those of the energy-metals.



Unveiling the Time-dependent Dynamics between Oil Prices and Exchange Rates: A Wavelet-based Panel Analysis

Hyunjoo Kim Karlsson, Kristofer Månsson, and Pär Sjölander

Year: 2020
Volume: Volume 41
Number: Number 6
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.41.6.hkar
View Abstract

Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to re-examine the relationship between real oil prices and real effective exchange rates (REER) for major oil-exporting countries with floating exchange rates. We apply the wavelet-based principles of Gallegati et al. (2016) using monthly data for the period 1996 to 2015. In contrast to many previous studies, our results support the theoretically expected positive nexus between the real oil prices and REER for our dataset. This (theoretically-expected) positive relationship is stronger at the larger time scales (that is, at the 4-8 and 8-16 month wavelet scales) compared to the smaller time scales (that is, at the 1-2 and 2-4 month wavelet scales). The findings of this study therefore add to the existing literature, since they disentangle the specific relationship between oil prices and exchange rates at different time scales, which has important policy implications.



Selling Wind

Ali Kakhbod, Asuman Ozdaglar, and Ian Schneider

Year: 2021
Volume: Volume 42
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.42.1.akak
View Abstract

Abstract:
We investigate the strategic behavior of wind producers in the presence of uncertain wind resource availability, where wind availability is correlated across firms. We study how the level of correlation between different firms' wind resources impacts strategy and market outcomes. The main insight of our analysis is that increasing heterogeneity in resource availability improves social welfare, as a function of its effects both on improving diversification and on reducing withholding by firms. We show that this insight is robust for common assumptions regarding electricity demand. The model is also used to analyze the effect of wind resource heterogeneity on firm profits and opportunities for collusion. Finally, we analyze the impacts of improving public information and weather forecasting; enhanced public forecasting increases welfare, but it is not always in the best interests of strategic producers.




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