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Impact of Biomass Availability on Selection of Optimal Energy Systems and Cost of Energy

P. R. Shukla and T. K. Moulik

Year: 1986
Volume: Volume 7
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol7-No2-8
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Abstract:
This paper assesses the impact of biomass availability on the selection of optimal energy systems, allocation of energy to various energy needs, and cost of energy to villages. Proposals are considered for the development of biomass resources and subsidization of biomass-based energy systems. The analysis applies the Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) optimization model to four villages under existing conditions, as well as under various proposals affecting biomass availability and costs of energy systems using biomass. It is based on a comprehensive study (Moulik and Shukla, 1985) that contains many details beyond the scope of this paper.



Assessing the Interactions among U.S. Climate Policy, Biomass Energy, and Agricultural Trade

Marshall A. Wise, Haewon C. McJeon, Katherine V. Calvin, Leon E. Clarke, and Page Kyle

Year: 2014
Volume: Volume 35
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.35.SI1.9
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Abstract:
Energy from biomass is potentially an important contributor to U.S. climate change mitigation efforts. However, large-scale implementation of bioenergy competes with other uses of land, including agriculture and forest production and terrestrial carbon storage in non-commercial lands. And with trade, bioenergy could mean greater reliance on imported energy. Based on EMF-24 policy specifications, this paper explores these dimensions of bioenergy's role in U.S. climate policy and the relationship to alternative measures for ameliorating the trade and land use consequences. It shows how widespread use of biomass in the U.S. could lead to imports; and it highlights that the relative stringency of domestic and international carbon mitigation policy will heavily influence the amount of imports. It demonstrates that limiting biomass imports could alter the balance of trade in other agricultural products. Finally, it shows that increasing efforts to protect both U.S. and international forests could also affect the balance of trade in other agricultural products. Keywords: Biomass, Bioenergy, Land use, Climate mitigation, Agricultural trade



U.S. CO2 Mitigation in a Global Context: Welfare, Trade and Land Use

Ronald D. Sands, Katja Schumacher, and Hannah Forster

Year: 2014
Volume: Volume 35
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.35.SI1.10
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Abstract:
We describe carbon dioxide mitigation scenarios specified by the Energy Modeling Forum study (EMF-24) "U.S. Technology Transitions under Alternative Climate Policies," using a global computable general equilibrium model that simulates world energy and agricultural systems through 2050. One set of scenarios covers variation across five major technology groups: end-use technology, carbon dioxide capture and storage, nuclear electricity generation, wind and solar power, and bioenergy. Other scenarios cover variation across policies. Policies such as a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation or a clean electricity standard have the potential for significant emissions reductions, but at a greater cost than a cap-and-trade scenario with the same reduction in emissions. Cap-andtrade scenarios resulted in carbon dioxide leakage rates of 11 to 20 percent depending on the stringency of the targets. Oil-exporting regions without a mitigation policy may still have significant welfare losses when other world regions reduce emissions. Keywords: Carbon dioxide, Climate policy, Carbon leakage, Land use, Bioenergy





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