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Financial Speculation in Energy and Agriculture Futures Markets: A Multivariate GARCH Approach

Matteo Manera, Marcella Nicolini, and Ilaria Vignati

Year: 2013
Volume: Volume 34
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.34.3.4
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This paper analyses futures prices of four energy commodities (crude oil, heating oil, gasoline and natural gas) and five agricultural commodities (corn, oats, soybean oil, soybeans and wheat), over the period 1986�2010. Using DCC multivariate GARCH models, it provides new evidence on four research questions: 1) Are macroeconomic factors relevant in explaining returns of energy and nonenergy commodities? 2) Is financial speculation significantly related to returns in futures markets? 3) Are there significant relationships among returns, either in their mean or variance, across different markets? 4) Is speculation in one market affecting returns in other markets? Results suggest that the S&P 500 index and the exchange rate significantly affect returns. Financial speculation, proxied by Working�s T index, is poorly significant in modelling returns of commodities. Moreover, spillovers between commodities are present and the conditional correlations among energy and agricultural commodities display a spike around 2008.

Understanding Dynamic Conditional Correlations between Oil, Natural Gas and Non-Energy Commodity Futures Markets

Niaz Bashiri Behmiri, Matteo Manera, and Marcella Nicolini

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.2.nbeh
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We look at the dynamic conditional correlations (DCCs) between oil, natural gas and other non-energy commodity futures markets, obtained from a DCC-GARCH model over the period 1998-2014. They are positive and display a sharp increase around year 2008 and a subsequent decrease. The DCCs between energy and metals are larger than the energy-agriculture ones. To understand how macroeconomic and financial factors, as well as speculative activity, influence them, we estimate an ARDL(1,1) model, adopting a pooled mean group (PMG) estimator. We observe that macroeconomic and financial variables are significantly correlated with the energy-agriculture and energy-metals DCCs. Speculative activity contributes to explain the energy-agriculture DCCs but not those of the energy-metals.

Financial Stress and Basis in Energy Markets

Niaz Bashiri Behmiri, Maryam Ahmadi, Juha-Pekka Junttila, and Matteo Manera

Year: 2021
Volume: Volume 42
Number: Number 5
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.42.5.nbeh
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We investigate the relationship between energy commodities bases, inventory and financial stress from 1994 to 2018. We find that, from the 1998 Asian crisis the effect of financial stress on energy commodities bases gradually increased and from the 2008 crisis became positive, while the effect of inventory showed a gradual decline over time. The reactions of bases to changes in financial stress is nonlinear, as they are higher in the high financial stress periods. This is more profound in crude oil market than heating oil and natural gas. Moreover, the reactions of bases to the changes in inventory is nonlinear, as the reactions are lower when the inventory level is high confirming the theory of storage. We suggest that, in energy market, changes of inventory do not fully explain the variation of energy commodities bases, as the connection between commodity and financial markets increased during the recent years.

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