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Environmental Issues in the Future Development of the USSR Energy Systems

V. M. Yudin and O.K. Makarov

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No3-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
With today's scientific and technological breakthroughs, the wellbeing of any society is strongly dependent on the scale of its provision of energy resources and on the state of its environment. These issues, both currently and in the long run, have become the most urgent ones demanding a joint endeavour from all the countries on the globe.



Trade Liberalization, Transportation, and the Environment

H. Landis Gabel and Lars-Hendrik Roller

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No3-10
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is an empirical study of the consequences of European trade liberalization for international transport demand and its environmental impact. The European market is broken into nine trading blocks, and trade flow equations for 29 industries are estimated for the period 1975-1985. A simulation of the change in volumes of trade byindustry and the distances trade goods must move generates an estimate of the increased transport demand in each industry. Data on the modal composition of transportation in each industry then allow an aggregation of demand across industries by transport mode-truck, train, sea, and inland waterway.The study concludes that the greatest increases will be in the demand for international transportation by sea, but that in terms of land-based transportation, there will be a large relative shift from rail to road. This will have a major adverse environmental impact which is discussed in the paper.



Energy Issues in Central and Eastern Europe: Considerations for International Financial Institutions

Joerg-Uwe Richter

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No3-12
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Abstract:
This paper reviews the main institutional, economic, and technical issues related to energy sector rehabilitation and development which the countries of Central and Eastern Europe face in the process of economic transformation. These issues concern the institutional weaknesses at the sectoral, subsectoral, and enterprise levels; remaining inadequacies in energy pricing; high energy intensity, low energy efficiency, and the related environmental degradation; and excessive dependence on energy imports from the former USSR.The Governments of the region are determined to introduce the reforms necessary for viable energy development. This is bound to be a substantial task that requires a coherent strategy with consistent policies and institutional measures. The most important ones are: establishing a pro-competition regulatory framework; restructuring energy enterprises, and enhancing the role of the private sector; setting energy prices that reflect economic costs; enhancing energy efficiency and environmental management of energy operations; improving the productivity of energy subsectors and enterprises through rehabilitation and technical modernization; and redirecting energy trade.Energy demand in the region may regain 1990-91 levels by the end of this decade. Nevertheless, investment requirements for rehabilitation and expansion over the next decade may total US$120-150 bn (in 1991 prices and exchange rates) for the region as a whole, which cannot be met without considerable international financial assistance.



The Effects of NAFTA on the Environment

Robert K. Kaufmann, Peter Pauly and Julie Sweitzer

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume14
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No3-10
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper reviews the impacts of NAFTA on the environment. Discussion focuses on the degree to which economic conditions in Canada, Mexico, and United States are consistent with the assumptions on which the benefits of free trade are based. Specifically, we discuss how NAFTA may exacerbate or alleviate the environmental impacts of economic activity via environmental externalities, the rate and efficiency of resource extraction, increased income, increased trade and transportation, and harmonizing environmental policy among nations at different levels of economic development. Because of difficulties in comparing different types of environmental impacts, we do not offer a conclusion about the overall effect of NAFTA on the environment, positive or negative. Rather, we argue that NAFTA must preserve the rights of all affected parties to intervene so that the costs and benefits associated with a particular project that arises out of increased trade can be evaluated on a case by case basis in the same imperfect way that such issues are addressed within the confines of a single nation.



The Impact of Sulfur Limits on Fuel Demand and Electricity Prices in Britain

David M. Newbery

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume15
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-No3-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
By the year 1996, about one-quarter of Britain's electricity will be generated from gas, compared to zero in 1992, displacing coal. This switch is required by 2000 to meet the EC and UN mandated sulfur emissions limits, but was advanced by the imperfect market created by privatisation. This paper examines the economics of Flue Gas Desulfurisation, and argues that without the right to trade emissions permits, FGD may run at only 17% load because of premature investment in gas generation. Tradable permits have a large impact on profits for the generators and British Coal. At present the pool fails to schedule plant on avoidable cost, and electricity prices are likely to be set by the price of gas, not the emissions limits, though gas prices may rise with tighter future limits.



Buying Time: Franchising Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Cleanup

Douglas R. Hale

Year: 1997
Volume: Volume18
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol18-No2-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper describes a private franchise approach to long-term custodial care, monitoring and eventual cleanup of hazardous and nuclear waste sites. The franchise concept could be applied to Superfund sites, decommissioning commercial reactors and safeguarding their wastes and to Department of Energy sites. Privatization would reduce costs by enforcing efficient operations and capital investments during the containment period, by providing incentives for successful innovation and by sustaining containment until the cleanup's net benefits exceed its costs. The franchise system would also permit local governments and citizens to demand and pay for more risk reduction than provided by the federal government. In principle, they would have the option of taking over site management. The major political drawback of the idea is that it requires society to be explicit about what it is willing to pay for now to protect current and future generations.



The Environmental Challenges of Power Generation

Thomas C. Schelling

Year: 1998
Volume: Volume19
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol19-No2-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
In two decades, three momentous changes have occurred that will influence power generation for decades to come. Coal has become a culprit responsible for respiratory disease and acid rain; carbon dioxide has become a culprit widely believed capable of changes in climate greater than any that have occurred in ten thousand years; and nuclear power in many countries has become an outcast. The irony is that nuclear power promised clean air and no greenhouse effect. The great gathering of heads of state in Rio in 1992 was the celebration of a problem; whether it was the beginning of a solution remains to be seen.



Decomposition of Aggregate CO2 Emissions in the OECD: 1960-1995

J. W. Sun

Year: 1999
Volume: Volume20
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol20-No3-7
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Abstract:
This paper analyzes the change of aggregate CO2 emissions in the, OECD from 1960 to 1995 based on a complete decomposition approach. The, study indicates that developed countries have achieved a considerable decrease in their CO2 emissions mainly due to improved energy efficiency and fuel switching. However, some member countries of the OECD have found it difficult to achieve the environmental targets set at Rio de Janeiro in 1992, and should reconsider their energy policies in light of information given at the UN Climate, Change Conference in Kyoto.



The Determinants of Sulfur Emissions from Oil Consumption in Swedish Manufacturing Industry, 1976-1995

Henrik Hammar and Asa Lofgren

Year: 2001
Volume: Volume22
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol22-No2-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
Using a structural decomposition analysis, we analyze the causes of a reduction in sulfur emissions originating from oil consumption in the manufacturing industry in Sweden during 1976-1995. The Swedish case is of interest since Sweden has pursued an ambitious policy to combat the precursors of acid rain. Between 1989 and 1995, about 59 percent of the reduction in sulfur emissions from manufacturing can be attributed to the announcement and implementation of a Swedish sulfur tax. Two thirds of the reduction during 1976-1995 is captured by substitution between oil and other energy sources. The price of electricity also has had a significant effect via substitution between oil and electricity. Furthermore, one third of the reduction during 1976-1995 is explained by decreased energy intensity.






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