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The Coming Age of Energy Taxes and Environmental Levies

Hans-Jochen Luhmann

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-NoSI-5
No Abstract



Chapter 21 - The Projected Influence of Extended Unit Service

M.E. Lapides

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-NoSI-21
View Abstract

Abstract:
If the operational life of a nuclear power plant can be extended, decommissioning will be delayed. In effect, this is an alternative to decommissioning. Is this a sensible or desirable option? In this chapter, M.E. Lapides evaluates the cost, environmental consequences, and funding impacts of delaying for 20 to 30 years. One of his conclusions is that the impacts of decommissioning on any of these three categories will be insignificant to the decommissioning decision. A contrasting view was offered in Chapter 20.



Environmental Issues in the Future Development of the USSR Energy Systems

V. M. Yudin and O.K. Makarov

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No3-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
With today's scientific and technological breakthroughs, the wellbeing of any society is strongly dependent on the scale of its provision of energy resources and on the state of its environment. These issues, both currently and in the long run, have become the most urgent ones demanding a joint endeavour from all the countries on the globe.



A Risk Analysis of Oil Development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Stephen G. Powell

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No3-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska is simultaneously the most promising onshore area for oil exploration and one of the wildest areas remaining in the USA. The conflict between the need to develop energy resources and the desire to preserve wild areas has led to a prolonged debate over the merits of programs to lease the region for oil exploration and development.



The Trade-Off between Economic and Environmental Objectives in Japan's Power Sector

Hisashi Amagai and PingSun Leung

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No4-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
The current concern about global warming has made it necessary for the electric power industry in Japan to reexamine its power generation mix plan. Past studies on the optimal power generation mix in Japan have only emphasized economic efficiency. Thermal power generation producing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions has a lower generation cost than hydropower and new energy sources. Hence, there is a trade-off between generation-cost minimization (the economic objective) and COz emission minimization (the environmental objective). This paper presents a quantitative study of the trade-off between these two objectives in the year 2000, and discusses the nature of the trade-off curve and the extent of power generation by source.



Woodfuel Use and Sustainable Development in Haiti

Richard H. Hosier and Mark A. Bernstein

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No2-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper examines energy use and environmental deterioration in Haiti. It applies linear programming to the national energy balance to analyze whether or not the substitution of kerosene or other petroleum fuels for charcoal is economically beneficial and whether it will result in a reduction of pressure for deforestation. It concludes that because of the inefficiencies in the production of charcoal, the substitution of kerosene for charcoal is an economically beneficial option. However, if stimulated through price incentives alone, it is unlikely to lead to an overall reduction in the quantity of wood used for fuel. Energy and environmental policy, therefore, must focus on interfuel substitution, improved efficiency and rural afforestation, in addition to "getting the prices right".



Trade Liberalization, Transportation, and the Environment

H. Landis Gabel and Lars-Hendrik Roller

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No3-10
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is an empirical study of the consequences of European trade liberalization for international transport demand and its environmental impact. The European market is broken into nine trading blocks, and trade flow equations for 29 industries are estimated for the period 1975-1985. A simulation of the change in volumes of trade byindustry and the distances trade goods must move generates an estimate of the increased transport demand in each industry. Data on the modal composition of transportation in each industry then allow an aggregation of demand across industries by transport mode-truck, train, sea, and inland waterway.The study concludes that the greatest increases will be in the demand for international transportation by sea, but that in terms of land-based transportation, there will be a large relative shift from rail to road. This will have a major adverse environmental impact which is discussed in the paper.



Energy Issues in Central and Eastern Europe: Considerations for International Financial Institutions

Joerg-Uwe Richter

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No3-12
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper reviews the main institutional, economic, and technical issues related to energy sector rehabilitation and development which the countries of Central and Eastern Europe face in the process of economic transformation. These issues concern the institutional weaknesses at the sectoral, subsectoral, and enterprise levels; remaining inadequacies in energy pricing; high energy intensity, low energy efficiency, and the related environmental degradation; and excessive dependence on energy imports from the former USSR.The Governments of the region are determined to introduce the reforms necessary for viable energy development. This is bound to be a substantial task that requires a coherent strategy with consistent policies and institutional measures. The most important ones are: establishing a pro-competition regulatory framework; restructuring energy enterprises, and enhancing the role of the private sector; setting energy prices that reflect economic costs; enhancing energy efficiency and environmental management of energy operations; improving the productivity of energy subsectors and enterprises through rehabilitation and technical modernization; and redirecting energy trade.Energy demand in the region may regain 1990-91 levels by the end of this decade. Nevertheless, investment requirements for rehabilitation and expansion over the next decade may total US$120-150 bn (in 1991 prices and exchange rates) for the region as a whole, which cannot be met without considerable international financial assistance.



The Effects of NAFTA on the Environment

Robert K. Kaufmann, Peter Pauly and Julie Sweitzer

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume14
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No3-10
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper reviews the impacts of NAFTA on the environment. Discussion focuses on the degree to which economic conditions in Canada, Mexico, and United States are consistent with the assumptions on which the benefits of free trade are based. Specifically, we discuss how NAFTA may exacerbate or alleviate the environmental impacts of economic activity via environmental externalities, the rate and efficiency of resource extraction, increased income, increased trade and transportation, and harmonizing environmental policy among nations at different levels of economic development. Because of difficulties in comparing different types of environmental impacts, we do not offer a conclusion about the overall effect of NAFTA on the environment, positive or negative. Rather, we argue that NAFTA must preserve the rights of all affected parties to intervene so that the costs and benefits associated with a particular project that arises out of increased trade can be evaluated on a case by case basis in the same imperfect way that such issues are addressed within the confines of a single nation.



Price, Environmental Regulation, and Fuel Demand: Econometric Estimates for Japanese Manufacturing Industries

Isamu Matsukawa, Yoshifumi Fujii and Seishi Madono

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume14
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No4-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
In this paper, we analyze interfuel substitution according to Japanesemanufacturing sectors. We examine the impact of environmental regulations and technical changes on fuel choice, and the effects of price on fuel substitution, using pooled data on fuel consumption and purchase price for 58 regions in the period 1980-88. The empirical results, based on the estimation of translog unit fuel cost functions by sector, indicate that (1) substitution possibilities were found for most combinations of fuel types in every sector; and (2) environmental regulations and technical changes significantly impact fuel consumption for most sectors, but their effects on fuel demand differ both across sectors and fuel types.




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