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The Treatment of Intermediate Materialsin the Estimation of the Demand for Energy: The Case of U.S. Manufacturing, 1947-1971

Richard G. Anderson

Year: 1980
Volume: Volume 1
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol1-No4-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
Continuing increases in the price of energy have stimulated extensive research on energy demand and factor substitution in the U.S. economy. The manufacturing segment of the U.S. economy consumes approximately one-fourth of aggregate U.S. energy if measured by Btu consumption, and about 40 percent if measured by the Btu content of the fuel used for electric power generation (see Table 1). Hence, the manufacturing sector has been specifically targeted as a source of potential reductions in energy demand in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975,This paper was completed while the author was Assistant Professor of Economics at Michigan State University. Acknowledgment is given to Ernst Berndt, Robert Engle,Franklin Fisher. Jerry Hausman, James Johannes, Robert Pindyck, and Robert Rasche for helpful comments. The author retains responsibility for errors.



Aggregate Elasticity of Energy Demand

EMF 4 Working Group

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No2-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
The first EMF study, "Energy and the Economy," produced estimates of the aggregate elasticity of substitution for primary energy implicit in six models of energy and the economy.' In that study, the working group identified the importance of the aggregate elasticity and called for an examination of more detailed demand models. During its review of the study, the EMF Senior Advisory Panel cited the importance of a careful investigation of energy demand models to clarify estimates of the aggregate elasticity. The present study is a response to those suggestions.



An Analysis of Department of Energy Residential Appliance Efficiency Standards

Raymond S. Hartman & MIT Energy Laboratory

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No3-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
Over the past several years, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have initiated an array of policies aimed at limiting domestic consumption of fossil fuels. Several policy initiatives, aimed at residential fossil-based energy conservation, have included residential appliance efficiency standards, the commercialization of residential applications of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations and solar thermal appliances, and the implementation of energy performance standards for buildings. Each of these programs alone will reduce residential fossil fuel consumption. However, it remains unclear how they interact. In this article I examine how two programs may interact. In particular, I assess how well appliance efficiency standards will reduce fuel consumption and whether a standards program will conflict with or complement the DOE's PV commercialization efforts.



Industrial and Commercial Demand for Electricity by Time-of-Day: A California Case Study

Chinbang Chung, Dennis J. Aigner

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No3-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
Recently there has been much interest in time-of-use (TOU) pricing structures for electric utilities. TOU pricing reflects more closely than conventional pricing the cost components of supplying electricity, which vary over the course of a single day as well as over days of the week and seasons of the year. Although such pricing structures have long been used in Europe, they did not receive much attention in the United States prior to 1974.



Oil and Energy Demand in Developing Countries in 1990

Charles Wolf, Jr., Daniel A. Relles, Jaime Navarro

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No4-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade? Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important? How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs?In the study on which this article is based, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years.' Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based.



Will President Reagan's Energy Policy Lead Households to Conserve?

Eric S. Brown

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
When energy was cheap and easily available, consumers' paid little attention to their energy use and bills, so after the supply disruptions of the1970s, they were poorly equipped to deal with the changes they faced in energy prices and availability. During the 1970s, the federal government undertook various programs of education and assistance, including dissemination of printed information, establishment of energy standards for federally financed homes, and tax credits for use of alternative energy sources.









Notes - Risk Analysis of Alternative Energy Sources

Daniel R. Kazmer

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-11
No Abstract



Reply to "Risk Analysis of Alternative Energy Sources"

Miller B. Spangler

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-12
No Abstract



Wood Energy Bibliography

n/a

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-13
No Abstract





Notes - Comment on "Economic Implications of Mandated Efficiency..."

Stanley M. Besen and Leland L. Johnson

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-9
No Abstract



Estimation of Energy Demand: The Developing Countries

Joy Dunkerley

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No2-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
The estimation of energy demand, including conservation possibilities, is now widely recognized as a topic of major importance in both industrial and developing countries. Recent rises in oil prices and the possibility of both long- and short-term supply disruptions or shortages have focused the attention of energy planners throughout the world on how much energy might be consumed in the future, and to what extent energy consumption is sensitive to different kinds of conservation measures.



Natural Gas Availability and the Residential Demand for Energy

Gail R. Blattenberger, Lester D. Taylor, and Robert K.Rennhack

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No1-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
Not all households have access to pipeline-delivered natural gas.This fact affects not only the demand for natural gas but the demand for electricity and fuel oil as well. Since electricity and natural gas are substitutes in cooking, space heating, water heating, and (to a much lesser extent) cooling, the price elasticity of demand for electricity will be larger when gas is available than when it is not. Fuel oil and natural gas are substitutes in cooking, space heating, and water heating, so that oneshould also expect larger price elasticities for fuel oil when gas is available.



Energy-Output Coefficients: Complex Realities Behind Simple Ratios

G. C. Watkins and E. R. Berndt

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No2-8
View Abstract

Abstract:
The demand for energy is a derived demand, since it is transmitted from demands for goods and services that incorporate energy as an input. Trends in the ratio of energy consumption to the level of output the so-called energy coefficient-are often used to examine energy demand in the industrial and other demand sectors.' In a market economy, the inference of this approach is that at a time of increasing energy prices, a rise in the energy coefficient is an indication of waste and inefficiency or of a perverse price response. Correspondingly, a fall in the energy coefficient is evidence of the efficacy of the price mechanism and government regulations inpromoting energy conservation.



Energy Demand Elasticities in Industrialized Countries: A Survey

George Kouris

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No3-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
A high price elasticity for energy demand implies a long-term ability of the economy to absorb the impact of higher energy prices. Thus price shocks, after generating pronounced inflationary and recessionary effects over the short term, do not act as a constraint to economic growth over the longer term. By contrast, a low price elasticity implies weak reactions to increasing energy costs and a protracted adverse effect on output and inflation. Unfortunately, a survey of the literature on energy demand elasticities shows diverse results. Should econometric results be used for policymaking and planning, then a critical and eclectic attitude is imperative to screen out the most relevant aspects of the empirically determined price elasticities.




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