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Estimating Residential Partial Outage Cost With Market Research Data

Dennis M. Keane, S. Leslie MacDonald, and Chi-Keung Woo

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume 9
Number: Special Issue 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-NoSI2-10
No Abstract

The Cost of Australian Carbon Dioxide Abatement

Robert E. Marks, Peter L. Swan, Peter McLennan, Richard Schodde, Peter B. Dixon and David T. Johnson

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No2-8
View Abstract

This paper examines efficient means of abating the greenhouse effect in Australia by reducing the emissions of CO2. It examines the generation of CO2 emissions from fossil fuels in Australia, and analyses means to cut emissions from electricity generation and road transport. Finally, it calculates the cost, in terms of growth forgone, of measures to attain the Toronto targets for Australian electricity generation and road transport, using the ORANI multisectoral model.

The Role of Non-CO2 GHGs in Climate Policy: Analysis Using the MIT IGSM

John Reilly, Marcus Sarofim, Sergey Paltsev and Ronald Prinn

Year: 2006
Volume: Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy
Number: Special Issue #3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-VolSI2006-NoSI3-26
View Abstract

First steps toward a broad climate agreement, such as the Kyoto Protocol, have focused on less than global geographic coverage. We consider instead a policy that is less comprehensive in term of greenhouse gases (GHGs), including only the non-CO2 GHGs, but is geographically comprehensive. Abating non-CO2 GHGs may be seen as less of a threat to economic development and therefore it may be possible to involve developing countries in such a policy even though they have resisted limits on CO2 emissions. The policy we consider involves a GHG price of about $15 per ton carbon-equivalent (tce) levied only on the non-CO2 GHGs and held at that level through the century. We estimate that such a policy would reduce the global mean surface temperature in 2100 by about 0.55° C; if only methane is covered that alone would achieve a reduction of 0.3° to 0.4° C. We estimate the Kyoto Protocol in its current form would achieve a 0.25° C reduction in 2100 if Parties to it maintained it as is through the century. Furthermore, we estimate the costs of the non-CO2 policies to be a small fraction of the Kyoto policy. Whether as a next step to expand the Kyoto Protocol, or as a separate initiative running parallel to it, the world could well make substantial progress on limiting climate change by pursuing an agreement to abate the low cost non-CO2 GHGs. The results suggest that it would be useful to proceed on global abatement of non-CO2 GHGs so that lack of progress on negotiations to limit CO2 does not allow these abatement opportunities to slip away.

Aid, Growth, Remittances and Carbon Emissions in Nepal

Kishor Sharma, Badri Bhattarai, and Salma Ahmed

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.1.ksha
View Abstract

Using historical data from Nepal - one of the largest recipients of aid among South Asian countries - this paper investigates the link between foreign aid, growth, remittances and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The investigation of this issue is particularly important, as policy makers in the least developed countries are increasingly concerned about growing reliance on energy imports, particularly fossil fuels, and increasing CO2 emissions. Mounting energy consumption has not only made their economies vulnerable to environmental disasters and increased health costs, but also to external shocks due to frequent fluctuations in international market prices for petroleum products. Since available studies are largely based on cross-sectional data - which lump together countries with different characteristics - empirical evidence is contradictory. In-depth case studies of countries with different backgrounds would certainly provide better insights into the link between aid, growth, remittances and CO2 emissions, and contribute to ongoing policy dialogue. Our empirical results, based on an in-depth case study of Nepal, suggest that more foreign aid and remittances reduce CO2 emissions, whereas financial development and higher income increase CO2 emissions. These findings point to the importance of market mechanisms for regulating financial development and higher income to control CO2 emissions, without undermining competitiveness.

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