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Residential Energy Use in the OECD

Lee Schipper and Andrea N. Ketoff

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-6
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Abstract:
In this article we describe the evolution of residential energy use in OECD countries over the 1970-1982 period. We focus on European countries but refer also to findings for the United States, Canada, and Japan. We quantify the changes in energy consumption (particularly those that occurred in response to the great price shocks of 1973-1974 and 1979-1981), assess the permanency of these changes through 1982, and speculate on trends through 1983 on the basis of preliminary data. This analysis summarizes the results of a continuing project (Schipper, Ketoff, and Kahane, 1985) to identify, analyze, and monitor residential energy use in nearly a dozen OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States).



Book Review - Petroleum Economics

Richard L. Gordon

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No3-10
No Abstract





Book Review - Electricity and the American Economy

Lee Schipper

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No3-12
No Abstract



Manufacturing Energy Use in Eight OECD Countries: Trends through 1988

Richard B. Howarth and Lee Schipper

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No4-2
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Abstract:
This paper reviews the evolution of manufacturing energy use in eight industrialized nations: West Germany, Denmark, France, Japan, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Manufacturing energy use fell in these nations by 16% between 1973 and 1988 while manufacturing value-added increased by 41%. Reduced energy intensities in six industry groups -- paper and pulp; chemicals; stone, clay and glass; iron and steel; nonferrous metals; and other manufacturing -- were the primary source of this apparent decoupling of energy use and output. Between 1973 and 1988, intensity reductions would have driven down sectoral energy use by 32% if the level and composition of output had remained constant. Structural change, or shifts in the product mi, would have reduced energy use by 11% if the total level of output and the energy intensities of each industry group had remained constant.



The Structure and Intensity of Energy Use: Trends in Five OECD Nations

Richard B. Howarth, Lee Schipper, and Bo Andersson

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume 14
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No2-2
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Abstract:
Ths paper examines trends in the structure and intensity of final energy demand in five OECD nations between 1973 and 1988. Our focus is on primary energy use, which weights fuels by their thermal content and multiplies district heat and electricity by factors of 1.15 and 3.24 to approximate the losses that occur in the conversion and distribution of these energy carriers. Growth in the level of energy-using activities, given 1973 energy intensities (energy use per unit of activity), would have raised primary energy use by 46% in the U. S., 42%, in Norway, 33% in Denmark, 37% in West Germany, and 53% in Japan. Reductions in end-use energy intensities, given 1973 activity levels, would have reduced primary energy use by 19% in the U.S., 3% in Norway, 20% in Denmark, 15% in West Germany, and 14% in Japan. Growth in national income paralelled increases in a weighted index of energy-using activities in the U. S., West Germany, and Denmark but substantially outstripped activity growth in Norway and Japan. We conclude that changes in the structure of a nations economy may lead to substantial changes in its energy/GDP ratio that art? unrelated to changes in the technical efficiency of energy utilization. Similarly, changes in energy intensities may be greater or less than the aggregate change in the energy/GDP ratio of a given country, a further warning that this ratio may be an unreliable indicator of technical efficiency.



International Comparisons of Sectoral Carbon Dioxide Emissions Using a Cross-Country Decomposition Technique

Lee Schipper, Scott Murtishaw and Fridtjof Unander

Year: 2001
Volume: Volume22
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol22-No2-3
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Abstract:
Discerning which sources contribute most to differences in per capita carbon emissions and why presents a daunting task for analysts, since several underlying factors affect emissions from hundreds of end-uses. This paper provides details of an international comparison methodology and carries out the comparison on a number of International Energy Agency (IEA) member countries. These calculations show where differences in the components of emissions lead to large gaps among countries. The data, from national sources, are the most extensive and disaggregated ever compiled for this kind of international analysis. Overall, activity differences account for the largest part of the gap in per capita emissions among IEA countries. If we normalize emissions to GDP, then transport activity levels, energy intensities, and utility carbon intensity share about equally in explaining the differences in carbon/GDP ratios among countries. Most of the structural variations arise in the freight, services, and household sectors-sectors less sensitive to international competition than manufacturing.





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