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How Big is the Electricity Conservation Potential in Industry?

Mark Jaccard, John Nyboer and Allan Fogwill

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume 14
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No2-7
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For integrated resource planning, electric utilities require estimates of the technical and economic conservation potential. This potential depends upon the efficiencies of existing equipment, as well as efficiencies and costs of new equipment. The industrial conservation potential is generally concentrated in machine drive: electric motors and the various auxiliary technologies (pumps, fians, etc.) and process technologies (grinders, saws, etc.) to which they are connected. Most studies of industry focus on the potential due to more efficient motors and electronic adjustable speed drives. Our study of industry in British Columbia extends this analysis in two ways: (1) Alternative configurations and equipment types of key auxiliary and process equipment and connecting mechanisms are included in the database and analysis. (2) The relationship is specified between different auxiliary technologies and major steps in each production process. This allows for a more complete and dynamic estimate of conservation potential, showing how it changes as a function of structural and major process change in industry. The resulting industry-wide estimates of technical and economic conservation potential range from 35% to 40%, in the year 2010, with significant differences between end-uses (15% to 70%) and between industry branches (20% to 42%).

CO2 Emission Reduction Costs in the Residential Sector: Behavioral Parameters in a Bottom-Up Simulation Model

Mark Jaccard, Alison Bailie and John Nyboer

Year: 1996
Volume: Volume17
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol17-No4-5
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Cost estimates for reducing energy-related CO2 emissions vary with modeling assumptions and methods. Much debate has centered on the tendency for top-down models to suggest high costs and for bottom-up models to suggest low costs. This study incorporates behavioral parameters, derived from end-use equipment acquisition surveys, in a bottom-up simulation model ofthe residential sector in order to probe the basis for differing cost estimates and to test various policy suggestions. Simulating the effect of carbon taxes on a business as usual forecast, the results suggest that a CO2 tax will lead to significant net costs of adjustment if the factors leading to higher private discount rates reflect in part real costs and risks. The results also suggest that it may be in society's interest to pursue fuel switching policies with equal or greater vigour than energy efficiency improvements for the goal of reducing CO2emissions in the residential sector. As further research helps to distinguish the significance of these perceived costs and risks, and to refine projections of technology costs, the inputs to the model can be adjusted in order to refine the estimates for policy makers of CO2 reduction costs and of appropriate strategies for achieving reduction goals.

Modeling the Cost of Climate Policy: Distinguishing Between Alternative Cost Definitions and Long-Run Cost Dynamics

Mark K. Jaccard, John Nyboer, Crhis Bataille and Bryn Sadownik

Year: 2003
Volume: Volume 24
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol24-No1-3
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Interest groups and experts debate the cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction, and policy-makers do not know whom to believe. The confusion stems from differing definitions of costs and divergent assumptions about key uncertainties, especially the role of policy in influencing the long-run evolution of technologies and consumer preferences. Analysis could be more helpful to policy-makers by combining technological explicitness with behavioral realism in hybrid models. With such a model, we demonstrate how GHG reduction cost estimates vary depending on whether the analyst focuses just on the financial costs of technologies or combines this with other relevant components of consumer and business preferences, such as option value and consumers' surplus. We also show how this type of model can allow policy-makers to explore the uncertain relationship between policies and the evolution of technologies and preferences, which are critical factors in the long-run cost dynamics of GHG emission reduction. We explore these generic methodological issues with a case study of GHG reduction costs in Canada.

Towards General Equilibrium in a Technology-Rich Model with Empirically Estimated Behavioral Parameters

Chris Bataille, Mark Jaccard, John Nyboer and Nic Rivers

Year: 2006
Volume: Hybrid Modeling
Number: Special Issue #2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-VolSI2006-NoSI2-5
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Most energy-economy policy models offered to policy makers are deficient in terms of at least one of technological explicitness, microeconomic realism, or macroeconomic completeness. We herein describe CIMS, a model which starts with the technological explicitness of the �bottom-up� approach and adds the microeconomic realism and macroeconomic completeness of the �topdown� CGE approach. This paper demonstrates CIMS� direct utility for policy analysis, and also how it can be used to better estimate the long run capital-forenergy substitution elasticity (ESUB) and autonomous energy efficiency index (AEEI) technology parameters used in top-down models. By running CIMS under several possible energy price futures and observing their effects on capital and energy input shares and energy consumption, we estimate an economy-wide ESUB of 0.26 and an AEEI of 0.57%, with significant sectoral differences for both parameters.

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