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Petroleum Policy and Mexican Domestic Politics: Left Opposition, Regional Dissidence, and Official Apostasy

Edward J. Williams

Year: 1980
Volume: Volume 1
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol1-No3-4
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Abstract:
The impact of the petroleum industry on oil-producing countries has frequently emphasized the intimate interconnection and reciprocal influences of economic and political change. The agony of contemporary Iran is a dramatic example, but only one of many that help prove the point. In Nigeria's recent history, the competition for control of petroleum resources was one factor instigating a brutal civil war. In Venezuela, a new era of constitutional stability flowed from an expanded economic base provided by petroleum export earnings. In the United States, the rise to national prominence of the Texas politicos reflected the economic changes that evolved from petroleum discoveries.



Political Economy Obstacles to Fuel Taxation

Henrik Hammar, Asa Lofgren and Thomas Sterner

Year: 2004
Volume: Volume 25
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol25-No3-1
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Abstract:
Many studies have shown that fuel demand is quite elastic and that the best way to reduce fuel use (to tackle climate issues) is by taxing fuel. Yet it seems almost impossible to do so, particularly in those countries with low prices and high demand. The purpose of this paper is to cast light on the difficulties of raising gasoline taxes by analyzing the determinants of gasoline taxation. We believe that one of the reasons for the difficulties is that political pressure influences the political decisions regarding taxation of gasoline consumption. Not only do low taxes and thus low prices encourage high consumption, but high levels of consumption also lead to considerable pressure against raising the taxes. Our findings also point to the significance of other factors such as government debt (a higher debt leads to a higher gasoline tax rate).



The Political Economy of a Carbon Price Floor for Power Generation

David M. Newbery, David M. Reiner, and Robert A. Ritz

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.1.dnew
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Abstract:
The EU carbon price lies well below estimates of the social cost of carbon and "target-consistent" carbon prices needed to deliver ambitious targets such as the 40% reduction target for 2030. In light of this, the UK introduced a carbon price floor (CPF) for its electricity sector in 2013 and the new Dutch Government has recently made a similar commitment, while successive French Governments have called for an EU-wide CPF. This paper analyzes the impacts and design of a power-sector CPF, both at the EU and national level, using a political-economy approach. We find a good case for introducing such a price-based instrument into the EU ETS. We suggest that a CPF should be designed to "top up" the EUA price to �25-30/tCO2, rising annually at 3-5% above inflation, at least until 2030. We argue that the new EU Market Stability Reserve enhances the value of a CPF in terms of delivering climate benefits, and discuss the potential for a regional CPF in North-West Europe. We also review international policy experience with price floors (and ceilings).





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