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Economic Implications of Mandated Efficiency in Standards for Household Appliances

J. Daniel Khazzoom

Year: 1980
Volume: Volume 1
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol1-No4-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
In the discussion of energy conservation, a great deal of attention has focused on mandated efficiency standards for cars and energy-using household appliances. (In this article, I will use the term "appliance" in a generic sense to cover household durables). Unfortunately, the estimates of energy savings predicted to result from these mandated standards are derived mechanically.' When mandated standards raise the appliance efficiency by 1 percent, demand is predicted to drop by 1 percent; when they raise efficiency by 2 percent, demand is predicted to drop by 2 percent; and so on. Examples of such results are found in reports by the Department of Energy (1979a, 1980) and by the Staff of the California Energy Commission (1979) on energy demand in California in the coming two decades.



Will President Reagan's Energy Policy Lead Households to Conserve?

Eric S. Brown

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
When energy was cheap and easily available, consumers' paid little attention to their energy use and bills, so after the supply disruptions of the1970s, they were poorly equipped to deal with the changes they faced in energy prices and availability. During the 1970s, the federal government undertook various programs of education and assistance, including dissemination of printed information, establishment of energy standards for federally financed homes, and tax credits for use of alternative energy sources.









Notes - Risk Analysis of Alternative Energy Sources

Daniel R. Kazmer

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-11
No Abstract



Reply to "Risk Analysis of Alternative Energy Sources"

Miller B. Spangler

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-12
No Abstract



Wood Energy Bibliography

n/a

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-13
No Abstract





Notes - Comment on "Economic Implications of Mandated Efficiency..."

Stanley M. Besen and Leland L. Johnson

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-9
No Abstract



Residential Electricity Demand: A Suggested Appliance Stock Equation

Christopher Garbacz

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No2-11
View Abstract

Abstract:
A large amount of work in residential electricity demand has relied on logit estimation of a disaggregated appliance stock. (See the seminal work by McFadden et al., 1977.) While this approach may be suitable for certain types of models with certain goals in mind, a simple formulation of an appliance stock equation may sometimes be appropriate. For example, if the goal is to estimate seasonal patterns in elasticities employing a national micro-data set (as in the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey 1978-1979; see U.S. Department of Energy, 1980), then it may be appropriate to develop an appliance stock equation to predict the size of an appliance stock index (approximating a continuous variable). The present appliance stock equation is part of a three-equation model that is estimated in log-linear form via 2SLS.



Conditional Demand Analysis for Estimating Residential End-Use Load Profiles

Dennis J. Aigner, Cynts Sorooshian, and Pamela Kerwin

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No3-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper reports some preliminary results from an ongoing study that uses regression methods to break down total household load into its constituent parts, each associated with a particular electricity-using end use or appliance. The data base used for this purpose consists of 15-minute integrated demand readings on a random sample of statistical control group customers from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power TOD (time of day)-pricing experiment for the months of August 1978 (132 customers), 1979 (108 customers), and 1980 (80 customers). Twenty-four regression equations are fitted, each one aimed at explaining variation in the time-averaged load (averaged over days of the month) over customers as a function of temperature, house size, and binary indicator variables that indicate the presence or absence of each of the end uses of interest. This sort of method for extracting the individual contributions of end uses to total household load has become known as conditional demand analysis (Parti and Parti, 1981). The success of this method for isolating end-use loads statistically, without direct metering of the appliance, depends crucially on whether the ownership patterns of appliances are well mixed. For example, if (as in our sample) everyone owns at least one refrigerator, it will be impossible to isolate refrigerator load. Similarly,



Will Mandatory Conservation Promote Energy Efficiency in the Selection of Household Appliance Stocks?

Jeffrey A. Dubin

Year: 1986
Volume: Volume 7
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol7-No1-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper estimates a nested logit model for space heat and water heat choice using data from the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS) by the Department of Energy in 1978. (See Dubin, 1983) for references to the data set and a detailed discussion of procedures used to prepare the data for economic analysis.) The use of micro-level disaggregated survey data to estimate discrete choice models of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has been very recent, but one can find a few related models in Dubin and McFadden (1984), Brownstone (1980), Goett (1979), Hausman (1979), and McFadden, Puig, and Kirschner (1977). One of the virtues of the structure developed here is that it has been embedded successfully in a larger micro-simulation system (the Residential End-Use Energy Policy System (REEPS)) for purposes of policy forecasting (Goett [1979]).



The Behavior of the Market for Energy Efficiency in Residential Appliances Including Heating and Cooling Equipment

Henry Ruderman, Mark D. Levine, and James E. McMahon

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No1-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
Our paper provides a quantitative analysis of market behavior for the purchase of energy efficiency in residential appliances and heating and cooling equipment. Accurate forecasts of residential energy use require quantitative assessments of market decisions about energy efficiency. The results of our investigation of market behavior can lead to a better understanding of the barriers to investment in energy conservation. Understanding market behavior over time is a prerequisite to an evaluation of the need for and the importance of policies to promote energy efficiency.



Responses to Energy Efficiency Regulations

Frederick C. Bold

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No2-8
View Abstract

Abstract:
Despite all the thunder and commotion surrounding energy usage and regulation, there is little comprehensive and systematic theoretical analysis of some of the most common forms of energy usage regulation. These regulations can take a variety of forms such as quantity rationing, price controls, tax incentives, building codes, and efficiency standards. With respect to legislated efficiency standards, some progress is made in a series of articles appearing in The Energy Journal concerned with the effect of compulsory efficiency improvements on energy consumption. The first is J. Daniel Khazzoom's "Economic Implications of Mandated Efficiency in Standards for Household Appliances." This article is followed by comments and extensions by Michael Einhorn, by Stanley M. Besen with Leland J. Johnson, and by a response to Besen and Johnson by Khazzoom and Sanford Miller. A second article by Einhorn deals with the differences in the Khazzoom and Besen-Johnson approaches.



The Demand for Insulation-A Study in the Household Demand for Conservation

J. Daniel Khazzoom

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No3-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper presents my effort to provide the means of estimating a major ingredient of the demand for conservation-namely, home insulation. A detailed account of the effort and its motivation can be found in Khazzoom (1984, 1986a). The demand relationships of this model provide one block (out of three) in a jointly determined system of demand relationships: demand for electricity, demand for insulation, and demand for efficient appliances. The study is pitched toward the service-area level. I estimated a model of the household demand for insulation in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD's) service area, which has a population of over 760,000.



Energy Saving Resulting from the Adoption of More Efficient Appliances

J. Daniel Khazzoom

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No4-8
View Abstract

Abstract:
In last November's IAEE meetings, Amory Lovins reported estimatesof energy saving that will result from the adoption of more efficient appliances. This note addresses three questions related to the subject.1. The realism of Lovins' estimate of energy saving.2. The way these estimates fare when juxtaposed against the price elasticity of demand used by Lovins.3. The light my recent empirical results shed on the magnitude of energy saving we can realistically expect.In the process, the note touches on the polar opposite policies that Lovins has been advocating.



The Residential Demand for Electricity in the TVA Power Service Area: Appliance Consumption from 1979 to 1986

Gary L. Jackson

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume 9
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-No1-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper compares appliance-specific electricity consumption at five points in time from 1979 to 1986. One of the major findings is that residential customers have reduced space heating electricity consumption substantially while space cooling consumption has remained relatively stable. Appliance-specific estimates of electricity consumption for seven other appliances are also provided. Impacts of six major factors affecting appliance electricity consumption (price, income, age, weather, living quarters' size, and the number of people) are estimated.




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