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Water, Wind and Soil: Hidden Keys to The Water Planet Earth and to Economic Macroprocesses

Gonzague Pillet

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume 9
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-No1-4
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This essay tentatively integrates the analysis of macroeconomic processes with that of natural ecological systems via energy balances and calculations. On the one hand, entropy studies concerning ecology and economy by Tsuchida (1976), Tamanoi, Tsuchida & Murota (1984), Murota (1984, 1985, 1987), Tsuchida & Murota (1985), and Kawamiya (1985) have stressed the major importance of the water cycle, wind energy, and the topsoil function as the hidden keys to the earth's open steady state and the renewability of its living systems.

The Implicit Carbon Price of Renewable Energy Incentives in Germany

Claudio Marcantonini, A. Denny Ellerman

Year: 2015
Volume: Volume 36
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.36.4.cmar
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This research analyzes the German experience in promoting Renewable Energy (RE) as an instrument to reduce GHG emissions. It identifies the cost of reducing CO2 emissions in the power sector through the promotion of wind and solar energy for the years 2006-2010. A RE carbon surcharge and an implicit carbon price due to the RE incentives are calculated. The RE carbon surcharge is the ratio of the net cost of the RE over the CO2 emission reductions resulting from actual RE injections into the electric power system. The implicit carbon price is the sum of the RE carbon surcharge and the EUA price. Results show that for the period analyzed both the RE carbon surcharge and the implicit carbon price of wind are on the order of tens of euro per tonne of CO2, while for solar are on the order of hundreds of euro per tonne of CO2.

Policy-Induced Expansion of Solar and Wind Power Capacity: Economic Growth and Employment in EU Countries

Jurate Jaraite, Amin Karimu and Andrius Kazukauskas

Year: 2017
Volume: Volume 38
Number: Number 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5547/01956574.38.5.jjar
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Given the intensifying debates on whether governments should promote particular renewable energy technologies, the main objective of this study is to investigate the long-and short-run effects of policy-induced expansion of renewable solar and wind technologies on economic growth and employment in 15 European Union (EU) member states during 1990-2013 by using panel-data time-series econometric techniques. Instead of relying on renewable energy consumption or generation as commonly done in the literature, we focus on the capacity for solar and wind power generation, which is largely a consequence of the EU's renewable energy policies. In summary, we find that, to date, renewable energy policy-induced wind and solar power capacity promotes growth and/or employment in the short run, but these capacity increases do not stimulate economic growth in the long run in the EU-15 region. In fact, our results tend to support the opposite relationship: increases in wind and solar power capacity are associated with negative economic growth, at least at the total economy level. Keywords: Economic growth, Employment, European Union, Granger causality, Panel cointegration, Policy, Renewable energy capacity, Solar energy, Wind energy

Transition and Integration of the ERCOT Market with the Competitive Renewable Energy Zones Project

Xiaodong Du and Ofir D. Rubin

Year: 2018
Volume: Volume 39
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.39.4.oru
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In this study, we seek to explore the impact of a state level transmission expansion project, the Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ), whose goal is to integrate a massive amount of wind energy, on the wholesale market prices in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). We find strong evidence for price convergence across ERCOT with accordance to the timing of the expansion of major sections of the CREZ. A variety of empirical analyses shows a gradual transition to a well-integrated market. We also find that regional-specific shocks became more important in terms of driving price change in other regions. Specifically, the impacts of Houston (demand) and the West (wind supply) on each other and the North and South regions have increased significantly. Our study contributes to the literature by connecting the expansion of physical transmission lines with electricity market integration.

Wind Turbine Shutdowns and Upgrades in Denmark: Timing Decisions and the Impact of Government Policy

Jonathan A. Cook and C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell

Year: 2020
Volume: Volume 41
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.41.3.jcoo
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For policymakers, an important long-run question related to the development of renewable industries is how government policies affect decisions regarding the scrapping or upgrading of existing assets. This paper develops a dynamic structural econometric model of wind turbine owners' decisions about whether and when to add new turbines to a pre-existing stock, scrap an existing turbine, or replace old turbines with newer versions (i.e., upgrade). We apply our model to owner-level panel data for Denmark over the period 1980-2011 to estimate the underlying profit structure for small wind producers (who constitute the vast majority of turbine owners in the Danish wind industry during this time period), and evaluate the impact of technology and government policy on wind industry development. Our structural econometric model explicitly takes into account the dynamics and interdependence of shutdown and upgrade decisions, and generates parameter estimates with direct economic interpretations. Results from the model indicate that the growth and development of the Danish wind industry were driven primarily by government policies as opposed to technological improvements. We use the parameter estimates to simulate counterfactual policy scenarios in order to analyze the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Danish feed-in-tariff and replacement certificate programs. Results show that both of these policies significantly impacted the timing of shutdown and upgrade decisions made by small wind producers and accelerated the development of the wind industry in Denmark. We also find that when compared with the feed-in-tariff; a declining feed-in-tariff; and the replacement certificate program and the feed-in-tariff combined, the replacement certificate program was the most cost-effective policy both for increasing payoffs of small wind producers and also for decreasing carbon emissions.

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