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An Assessment of the Effects of the Windfall Profits Tax on Crude Oil Supply

Philip K. Verleger, Jr.

Year: 1980
Volume: Volume 1
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol1-No4-3
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Abstract:
Most economic assessments of the recently enacted crude oil "windfall profits tax" (P. L. 96-223) have concluded that the tax will reduce the economic incentive to produce crude oil and will therefore have a negative impact on U.S. oil production.' This article disagrees with that view. Instead we show that the tax offers incentives to producers on existing properties that exceed those offered by a free market. Furthermore, based on estimates of these incentives, we conclude that the tax will1. See, for instance, Mead (1979) Wall Street Journal (1980), and Friedman (1980).Support from grants to the program on business and government relations at the School of Organization and Management at Yale University is gratefully acknowledged. Extraordinary assistance from Edward Erickson and Linda Scotten in improving the exposition of this paper is also gratefully acknowledged. The author assumes full responsibility for any errors.



Energy Taxes and Optimal Tax Theory

Michael J. Boskin and Marc S. Robinson

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-NoSI-2
No Abstract



Efficiency Versus Equity in Petroleum Taxation

Dale W. Jorgenson and Daniel T. Slesnick

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-NoSI-14
No Abstract



The Double Inefficiency of the Windfall Profits Tax on Crude Oil

Jerry Blankenship and David L. Weimer

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-NoSI-15
No Abstract



Water, Wind and Soil: Hidden Keys to The Water Planet Earth and to Economic Macroprocesses

Gonzague Pillet

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume 9
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-No1-4
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Abstract:
This essay tentatively integrates the analysis of macroeconomic processes with that of natural ecological systems via energy balances and calculations. On the one hand, entropy studies concerning ecology and economy by Tsuchida (1976), Tamanoi, Tsuchida & Murota (1984), Murota (1984, 1985, 1987), Tsuchida & Murota (1985), and Kawamiya (1985) have stressed the major importance of the water cycle, wind energy, and the topsoil function as the hidden keys to the earth's open steady state and the renewability of its living systems.





Increasing the Value of Wind with Energy Storage

Ramteen Sioshansi

Year: 2011
Volume: Volume 32
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol32-No2-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
One economic disincentive to investing in wind generation is that the average market value of wind energy can be lower than that of other generation technologies. This is driven by the exercise of market power by other generators and the fact that the ability of these generators to exercise market power is inversely related to real-time wind availability. We examine the use of energy storage to mitigate this price suppression by shifting wind generation from periods with low prices to periods with higher prices. We show that storage can significantly increase the value of wind generation but the currently high capital cost of storage technologies cannot be justified on the basis of this use. Moreover, we demonstrate that this use of storage can reduce consumer surplus, the profits of other non-wind generators, and social welfare. We also examine the sensitivity of these effects to a number of parameters including storage size, storage efficiency, ownership structure, and market competitiveness--showing that a more-competitive market can make storage significantly more valuable to a wind generator.



The Hidden System Costs of Wind Generation in a Deregulated Electricity Market

Timothy D. Mount, Surin Maneevitjit, Alberto J. Lamadrid, Ray D. Zimmerman, and Robert J. Thomas

Year: 2012
Volume: Volume 33
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol33-No1-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
Earlier research has shown that adding wind generation to a network can lower the total annual operating cost by displacing conventional generation. At the same time, the variability of wind generation and the need for higher levels of reserve generating capacity to maintain reliability standards impose additional costs on the system that should not be ignored. The important implication for regulators is that the capacity payments ["missing money"] for each MW of peak system load are now much higher. Hence, the economic benefits of reducing the peak system load using storage or controllable demand will be higher with high penetrations of wind generation. These potential benefits are illustrated in a case study using a test network and a security constrained Optimal Power Flow (OPF) with endogenous reserves (SuperOPF). The results show that the benefits are very sensitive to 1) how much of the inherent variability of wind generation is mitigated, and 2) how the missing money is determined (e.g. comparing regulation with deregulation).Keywords: Electricity markets, Wind generation, Optimum dispatch, Endogenous reserve capacity, Missing money, Total annual system costs.



Blowing in the Wind: Vanishing Payoffs of a Tolling Agreement for Natural-gas-fired Generation of Electricity in Texas

Chi-Keung Woo, Ira Horowitz, Brian Horii, Ren Orans, and Jay Zarnikau

Year: 2012
Volume: Volume 33
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol33-No1-8
View Abstract

Abstract:
We use a large Texas database to quantify the effect of rising wind generation on the payoffs of a tolling agreement for natural-gas-fired generation of electricity. We find that while a 20% increase in wind generation may not have a statistically-significant effect, a 40% increase can reduce the agreement's average payoff by 8% to 13%. Since natural-gas-fired generation is necessary for integrating large amounts of intermittent wind energy into an electric grid, our finding contributes to the policy debate of capacity adequacy and system reliability in a restructured electricity market that will see large-scale wind-generation development.Keywords: Wind generation, Tolling agreement, Spark spread option, Investment incentive



Storing Wind for a Rainy Day: What Kind of Electricity Does Denmark Export?

Richard Green and Nicholas Vasilakos

Year: 2012
Volume: Volume 33
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.33.3.1
View Abstract

Abstract:
Physical laws mean that it is generally impossible to identify which power stations are exporting to another country, but economic logic offers strong clues. On windy days, Denmark tends to export electricity to its neighbours, and to import power on calm days. Storing electricity in this way thus allows the country to deal with the intermittency of wind generation. We show that this kind of behaviour is theoretically optimal when a region with wind and thermal generation can trade with one based on hydro power. However, annual trends in Denmark's trade follow its output of thermal generation and are inversely related to Nordic production of hydro power and the amount of water available to Scandinavian generators, with no correlation with wind generation. We estimate the cost of volatility in Denmark's wind output to equal between 4% and 8% of its market value. Keywords: Electricity, Wind generation, Hydro generation, Storage, International trade




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