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Dimensioning Reserve Margins of Electrical Energy in Sweden

Roland Andersson and Lewis Taylor

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No2-4
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Abstract:
Assessing the impact of electricity shortages is a key problem in determining the optimal reliability of a nation's electrical system. The size of an electrical system's reserve margin will depend to a great extent on how the shortage value is determined. Telson (1975) used macroeconomic data to estimate the upper and lower bounds of the cost for unsupplied electricity. He found the present 1-day-in-10-years loss-of-load probability criterion to be uneconomically excessive and proposed that the criterion be reduced at least to the 5-days-in-10-years level.



Market Structure and the Price of Electricity: An Ex Ante Analysis of the Deregulated Swedish Electricity Market

Bo Andersson and Lars Bergman

Year: 1995
Volume: Volume16
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol16-No2-5
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Abstract:
Following new legislation the Swedish electricity market is about to be deregulated. The new system is designed to ensure competition introduction and supply. The main motive for deregulation is to increase competition and thus achieve lower market prices. A possible threat to this outcome is the high degree of concentration on the seller side that characterizes the Swedish electricity market. In this paper we show that given the current structure of firms on the supply side, deregulation is not a sufficient condition for lower equilibrium prices in the electricity market. We use a numerical model to explore the quantitative relation between the Cournot-equilibrium price, the number of firms, and the size distribution of firms in the Swedish electricity market. We compute equilibrium electricity prices and a welfare measure in order to quantify the effect of asymmetric market concentration on competition.



Will Cross-Ownership Re-Establish Market Power in the Nordic Power Market?

Eirik S. Amundsen and Lars Bergman

Year: 2002
Volume: Volume23
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol23-No2-3
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Abstract:
The integration of the power markets in Norway and Sweden in 1996 significantly constrained the major power companies' ability to exercise market power within their national borders. In recent years, however, mergers and reciprocal acquisition of shares have reduced the number of independent players on the Norwegian-Swedish power market. The aim of this paper is to explore to what extent increasing cross-ownership among the major power companies in Norway and Sweden might re-establish the market power that was lost when the two national power markets were integrated. The analysis is based on a numerical model, assuming Cournot quantity setting behavior, of the Norwegian-Swedish power market. The simulation results suggest that partial ownership relations between generators tend to increase horizontal market power and thus the market price of electricity.



Willingness to Pay among Swedish Households to Avoid Power Outages: A Random Parameter Tobit Model Approach

Fredrik Carlsson and Peter Martinsson

Year: 2007
Volume: Volume 28
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol28-No1-4
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Abstract:
Using a contingent valuation survey, we elicit Swedish households� willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid power outages. In the study respondents are asked to state their WTP for avoiding nine different types of outages. We therefore apply a random parameter Tobit model since there is cross-sectional heterogeneity and a proportion of zero responses. Based on the estimations, we find that the WTP depends positively on the duration of the outages, and that WTP is significantly higher for unplanned outages. The overall variation in the WTP due to observed heterogeneity in housing and socio-economic variables is small compared to the pure effects of power outages. Policy implications of those findings are discussed.





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