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The Real Rural Energy Crisis: Women's Time

Irene Tinker

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-NoSI-7
No Abstract



Energy Economics in Developing Countries: Analytical Framework and Problems of Application

Mohan Munasinghe

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume 9
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-No1-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
The pervasive and vital role of energy in national economies indicates that the identification of energy issues and energy policy analysis and implementation are important areas of study. While the drop in world oil prices which began in 1986 has provided some relief to the economies of oil-importing nations, energy-related problems still preoccupy the minds of decision-makers in most developing countries. Thus, while most of the key energy issues identified during the past decade persist, the availability of adequate energy resources at reasonable cost remains a vital precondition for continued economic growth. Typically, energy investments still account for about 25 percent of total public capital investments in developing countries.



A Welfare Measure of a New Type of Energy Assistance Program

Kenneth W. Costello

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume 9
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-No3-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
The sharp increase in utility rates since the 1970s has inflicted great hardship on low-income households. For many, paying their utility bills means sacrificing the purchase of other commodities essential to their economic well-being.' Another symptom of this problem is exhibited by the increased number of low-income people whose utility service has been cut off. Energy assistance programs have been instituted to cope with this serious problem. The major objectives of these programs are: (a) to make energy more affordable to the poor, thereby reducing the number of service disconnections, and (b) to limit how much the poor must pay for energy so that more funds are available for purchasing other essential commodities.



The Welfare Impact of Rising Block Pricing: Electricity in Colombia

Rodney Maddock and Elkin Castano

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No4-4
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Abstract:
In Medellin, Colombia, electricity prices follow an unusual system of rising block prices. The stated objective of the policy is to redistribute income. In this paper we calculate the degree of redistribution achieved relative to that of a horizontal price schedule. We also calculate the efficiency cost of discrimination. The data come from a survey of over 1000 residential users of electricity.



Appliance Standards and the Welfare of Poor Families

Steven Stoft

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume14
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No4-8
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Abstract:
Sutherland recently described U.S. federal appliance standards as causing a welfare loss that falls "particularly heavily on poor families." He attributed this loss to their risk aversion and to their being forced to invest at a discount rate of 7%. This note estimates the loss caused by this risk aversion at less than eight cents per year in the case of the 1993 refrigerator standard, and documents that standards have not been designed with the intention of forcing consumers to invest at a 7% discount rate.



Searching for Triple Dividends in South Africa: Fighting CO2 Pollution and Poverty while Promoting Growth

Jan van Heerden , Reyer Gerlagh, James Blignaut, Mark Horridge, Sebastiaan Hess, Ramos Mabugu and Margaret Mabugu

Year: 2006
Volume: Volume 27
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol27-No2-7
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Abstract:
A CGE model of South Africa is used to find the potential for a double or triple dividend if the revenues raised from an energy-related environmental tax are recycled to households and industry through lowering existing taxes. Four environmental taxes and three revenue-recycling schemes are compared. The environmental taxes are (i) a tax on greenhouse gas emissions, (ii) a fuel tax, (iii) a tax on electricity use, and (iv) an energy tax. The four taxes are constructed such that they have a comparable effect on emissions. The revenue is recycled through either (i) a direct tax break on both labour and capital, (ii) an indirect tax break to all households, or (iii) a reduction in the price of food. A triple dividend is found � decreasing emissions, increasing GDP, and decreasing poverty � when any one of the environmental taxes is recycled through a reduction in food prices.



Energy Economics: A Place for Energy Poverty in the Agenda?

Fatih Birol

Year: 2007
Volume: Volume 28
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol28-No3-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
The global energy system faces three major strategic challenges in the coming decades: the growing risk of disruptions to energy supply; the threat of environmental damage caused by energy production and use; and persistent energy poverty. The first two challenges have attracted a lot of attention from the energy-economics community, much less so the need to address the problem of energy under-development. On current trends, the number of people in poor countries relying primarily on traditional biomass for their energy needs will continue to rise, while the number lacking access to electricity will barely fall. To change this course, decisive policy action is needed urgently as part of the broader process of human development. Meeting basic human needs, such as food and shelter, must be at the heart of any strategy to alleviate poverty. Modern energy services help enable those needs to be met. In practice, concrete improvements in human welfare can be realised quickly at modest short-term cost. Strong political will and commitment on the part of the governments of the world's poorest countries will be crucial. Rich industrialised countries have an important role to play in this process too. In addition to moral issues involved, we have obvious long-term economic, political and energy-security interests in helping developing countries along the path to energy development. The cost of providing assistance to poor countries may turn out to be far less than that of dealing with the instability and insecurity that poverty creates.



A Quarter Century Effort Yet to Come of Age: A Survey of Electricity Sector Reform in Developing Countries

Tooraj Jamasb, Rabindra Nepal, and Govinda R. Timilsina

Year: 2017
Volume: Volume 38
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.38.3.tjam
View Abstract

Abstract:
More than two decades have passed since the start of the worldwide market-oriented electricity sector reforms. The reforms have varied in terms of structure, market mechanisms, and regulation. However, the passage of time calls for taking stock of the performance of the reforms in developing countries. This paper surveys the empirical literature on electricity sector reforms and draws some conclusions with a view to the future. Overall, the reforms have tended to improve the technical efficiency of the sector. The macroeconomic benefits of reforms are less clear and remain difficult to identify. Also, the gains from the reforms have often not trickled down to consumers because of institutional and regulatory weaknesses. In order to achieve lasting benefits, reforms need to adopt measures that align their pursuit of economic efficiency with those of equity and provision of access. Reforms can deliver more economic benefits and alleviate poverty when the poor have access to electricity. New technologies and institutional capacity building can help improve the performance of reforms.



Energy Affordability and Subjective Well-Being: Evidence for European Countries

Heinz Welsch and Philipp Biermann

Year: 2017
Volume: Volume 38
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.38.3.hwel
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper uses data on the life satisfaction of more than 100,000 individuals in 21 European countries from 2002 to 2011, to study the relationship between subjective well-being and the affordability for households of electricity, heating oil and natural gas. We find that energy prices have statistically and economically significant effects on subjective well-being. The effect sizes are smaller than but comparable to the effects of important personal factors of well-being. Effects above average are found in individuals from the lowest income quartile. In addition, effects are strongest at times when required energy expenditures can be expected to be high. The empirical results are consistent with the prediction that greater fuel poverty implies a greater effect of energy prices on well-being.



A Multidimensional Approach to Measuring Fuel Poverty

Dorothee Charlier and Berangere Legendre

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.2.bleg
View Abstract

Abstract:
In this study we suggest that a more careful and systematic understanding of fuel poverty can be developed through a multidimensional approach to the relationship between monetary poverty, residential energy efficiency, and heating restriction. Our objective is to provide new ways to better identify those who suffer the most from fuel poverty to optimize policy. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to measure poverty in three steps following Sen (1979): (i) combining poverty characteristics into an aggregate measure involving a fuel poverty index (FPI), (ii) identification and comparison of poor people according to existing and new definitions and (iii) testing the robustness of the fuel poverty composite indicator. Our results show that the usual measures reveal a gap that does not consider all the dimensions of fuel poverty, excluding those who are at or above a certain threshold, but who are nevertheless vulnerable.




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