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Kyoto, Efficiency, and Cost-Effectiveness: Applications of FUND

Richard S.J. Tol

Year: 1999
Volume: Volume 20
Number: Special Issue - The Cost of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol20-NoSI-6
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Abstract:
In this paper various emission reduction scenarios are evaluated with FUND-the Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation, and Distribution model. The aim is to help international negotiators improve upon the Kyoto Protocol. International cooperation in greenhouse gas emission reduction is important, and the more of it the better. The emission reduction targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol are irreconcilable with economic rationality. If the targets nevertheless need to be met, it is better to start emission reduction sooner than later in order to minimise costs. Methane emission reduction may be an important instrument to reduce costs.



Global Anthropogenic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions

Elizabeth A. Scheehle and Dina Kruger

Year: 2006
Volume: Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy
Number: Special Issue #3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-VolSI2006-NoSI3-2
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Abstract:
Methane and Nitrous Oxide emissions contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions globally, with an estimated total of 1,618 and 950 million metric tons of carbon equivalent in 2000, respectively. The estimates of these gases are highly dependent on country specific activity data and emission factors. Most countries are presently or are in the process of developing greenhouse gas inventories and projections. Developed countries are using more in-depth, detailed methodologies, activity data, and emissions factors and are passing on this knowledge to other countries through bilateral and multilateral processes. In order to take advantage of this newly available information, we have incorporated the detailed country prepared inventories and projections into an overall global estimation framework. The source and country level estimation methodology presented in this study allows for more accurate anthropogenic emission level estimates at a global level. The results show a slow growth in the recent historical period with quicker growth to 2020, under a without measures scenario.





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