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Rent Taxes on Norwegian Hydropower Generation

Eirik S. Amundsen, Christian Andersen, Jan Gaute Sannarnes

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No1-6
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Abstract:
In Norway, two obstacles to the introduction of a hydro rent tax are about to vanish, the old accounting system for public utilities and the system of administered non-rent prices. The tax authorities are now searching for a viable rent tax system. In this paper we consider detailed effects of six tax systems on realistically modelled marginal and highly profitable power plants. In addition to the existing "percentage system" we examine the ordinary corporate tax system, a special electricity income tax, a higher rate of proportional income tax, an excise tax and a resource rent tax. These systems are compared and evaluated with respect to neutrality, sensitivity to the amount of economic rent generated in a plant, cost-consciousness, stability of tax rates, stability of taxes paid, uncertainty of tax revenues and administrative costs. We conclude that the existing Norwegian tax system for electricity generation is not suited for taxing hydro rent since it seriously violates several of these criteria. The existing system ought to be replaced by a resource rent tax either as a pure system or in combination with a corporate income tax system.



Dead Battery? Wind Power, the Spot Market, and Hydropower Interaction in the Nordic Electricity Market

Johannes Mauritzen

Year: 2013
Volume: Volume 34
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.34.1.5
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Abstract:
It is well established within both the economics and power system engineering literature that hydropower can act as a complement to large amounts of intermittent energy. In particular hydropower can act as a "battery" where large amounts of wind power are installed. In this paper I use simple distributed lag models with data from Denmark and Norway. I find that increased wind power in Denmark causes increased marginal exports to Norway and that this effect is larger during periods of net exports when it is difficult to displace local production. Increased wind power can also be shown to slightly reduce prices in southern Norway in the short-run. Finally, I estimate that as much as 40 percent of wind power produced in Denmark is stored in Norwegian hydropower magazines.



The Other Renewable: Hydropower Upgrades and Renewable Portfolio Standards

Stein-Erik Fleten, Johannes Mauritzen, and Carl J. Ullrich

Year: 2018
Volume: Volume 39
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.39.2.sfle
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Abstract:
A total of 29 U.S. states and the District of Columbia have in place mandatory Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) which require that a minimum amount of energy come from renewable resources. We investigate the role of hydropower vis-a-vis other renewables under RPS. Using a Bayesian multilevel model, we find that hydropower plants subject to RPS are more likely to plan upgrades. These planned upgrades appear to be a substitute for solar and wind rather than complementary reserve generation.



Is a Wetter Grid a Greener Grid? Estimating Emissions Offsets for Wind and Solar Power in the Presence of Large Hydroelectric Capacity

Miguel Castro

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.1.mcas
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Abstract:
I use random fluctuations in hourly wind and solar generation in California to estimate how much they reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. These offsets depend on the direct displacement of high-cost natural gas generators, and on the hydropower reallocation that occurs to the hours with the lowest increase in renewable generation. Solar power daily intermittency shifts hydro from the afternoon to the evening, which increases its emissions offsets since the gas generators displaced in the evening are dirtier than those kept running in the afternoon. In contrast, wind offsets are less sensitive to hydropower reallocation, since it leads to a substitution of generators with similar emissions intensities. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for interactions between wind, solar, and hydro capacity in assessing their environmental benefits. Similar lessons will apply to electric grids with storage capacity.





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