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Fuel Prices and Station Heterogeneity on Retail Gasoline Markets

Justus Haucap, Ulrich Heimeshoff, and Manuel Siekmann

Year: 2017
Volume: Volume 38
Number: Number 6
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.38.6.jhau
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Abstract:
We empirically investigate how and why price levels differ across gasoline stations, using the first full year from a novel panel data set including price quotes from virtually all gas stations in Germany. Our analysis specifically explores the role of station heterogeneity in explaining price differences across gasoline stations. Key determinants of price levels are found to be ex-refinery prices as key input costs, a station's location on roads or highway service areas, and brand recognition. A lower number of station-specific services implies lower fuel price levels, as does a more heterogeneous local competitive environment.



Decomposing aggregate CO2 emission changes with heterogeneity: An extended production-theoretical approach

H. Wang, B.W. Ang, and P. Zhou

Year: 2018
Volume: Volume 39
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.39.1.hwan
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Abstract:
Quantifying the driving forces behind changes in aggregate CO2 emissions provides valuable information for supporting policy making in addressing climate change. We study this issue using the production-theoretical decomposition analysis (PDA) technique. Within a production theory framework, PDA examines CO2 emission changes from the perspective of productive efficiency. Although regional and sectoral heterogeneities in energy consumption and emission patterns prevail, they have not been taken into account in the PDA literature. By incorporating relevant decomposition methods, this study proposes an extended PDA approach to resolving the heterogeneity issue. The approach is applied to examine China's aggregate CO2 emission changes in its 11th five-year plan period (2005- 2010). By accounting for the heterogeneities, detailed results at the regional and sectoral levels are generated and further discussions presented.



Heterogeneous Returns to Scale of Wind Farms in Northern Europe

Giacomo Benini, Maria Carvalho, Ludovic Gaudard, Patrick Jochem, and Kaveh Madani

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: The New Era of Energy Transition
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.SI1.gben
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Abstract:
The present paper tries to identify the optimal size of a wind farm using North European data. An empirical analysis of 61 sites constructed between 2004 and 2014 suggests that economies-of-scale are highly heterogeneous across on-shore and off-shore projects. A Varying Coefficient Model captures such diversity by making the impact of the farm site on the amount of its potential capacity a non-linear function of the number of installed turbines. The resulting scale elasticities suggest that small on-shore farms have a bigger per-turbines output than off-shore ones, while the opposite is true for big projects.



Consumer Preferences for Solar Energy: A Choice Experiment Study

Jamal Mamkhezri, Jennifer A. Thacher, and Janie M. Chermak

Year: 2020
Volume: Volume 41
Number: Number 5
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.41.5.jmam
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Abstract:
Electricity generation in the United States is rapidly moving towards integrating more renewables into the system due to several factors, including cost competitiveness, consumer preferences, and state and federal policies, such as production and income tax incentives, renewable portfolio standards (RPSs), and state level subsidies for solar energy. While these policies have been researched comprehensively, in this paper we investigate consumer preference and willingness to pay toward renewable energy. Consumer preferences may impact the type of renewable energy utilized, as well as state-determined RPS requirements. We implement a choice experiment survey to gain understanding of consumer preferences and their preference heterogeneity. We conduct the survey in New Mexico, a state with RPS and great potential for renewables, particularly in solar where it ranks third in the U.S. for that potential. Focusing on the consumers of the state�s major utility, our choice experiment considers an increase in renewable energy and preference for different types of solar energy (rooftop solar and solar farm). We control for location heterogeneity (i.e., rural vs. urban), as well as exposure to solar installations. Utilizing multinomial logit and random parameter logit our results suggest respondents support an increased RPS solar requirement and they have a positive marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for rooftop solar and smart meter installation. These values are impacted by several factors, including location and exposure to solar. We also observe a distance decay effect on respondents� MWTP for different solar plans. For regulators considering additional RPS levels, or utilities considering solar installations, the results provide improved information on consumer preferences, heterogeneity of response, and MWTP for solar energy.



Fuel Demand across UK Industrial Subsectors

Paolo Agnolucci and Vincenzo De Lipsis

Year: 2020
Volume: Volume 41
Number: Number 6
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.41.6.pagn
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Abstract:
Heterogeneity is a theme acquiring more and more prominence in the energy economic literature from both a modelling and policy-making perspective. We show that useful empirical evidence on this subject can be obtained by applying a parsimonious multivariate cointegration analysis that makes use of the increasingly available time series data on energy demand. We find that there is substantial heterogeneity in the demand for fuels from UK firms belonging to different subsectors, with price and level of production having different degrees of importance in the fuel choice, and with evidence of both substitutability and complementarity between fuels. Moreover, we show that fuel demand for the industrial sector as a whole is considerably more elastic than most estimates presented in the literature, finding which has direct relevance for policies aimed at influencing industrial fuel consumption through fuel switching.



Conditional Yardstick Competition in Energy Regulation

Timo Kuosmanen and Andrew L. Johnson

Year: 2020
Volume: Volume 41
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.41.SI1.tkuo
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Abstract:
Yardstick competition is a regulation regime that forces local monopolies to compete against a variable cost or total cost benchmark. The variable cost benchmark ignores the fixed capital, creating a strong incentive to over-invest, whereas the total cost benchmark assumes all costs to be variable, ignoring the investment risk. We propose theoretical, methodological, and operational advances to increase applicability of yardstick competition in energy regulation. In the proposed conditional yardstick regime capital is treated as a fixed input, and the local monopolies compete against the variable cost conditional on the fixed input. We develop a benchmarking method that can handle multiple outputs, heterogeneity, and shape constraints to ensure incentive compatibility. We discuss the real-world application of the proposed regime to the Finnish electricity distribution firms in 2016�2023. We argue that smarter regulation of network industries can contribute to lower risk premiums and help to achieve win-win solutions both in terms of reliability and affordability.





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