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Coal Liquefaction

George R. Hill

Year: 1980
Volume: Volume 1
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol1-No1-9
View Abstract

Abstract:
The relative quantities of coal, petroleum (plus natural gas liquids), and natural gas proved and currently available in the United States are 18 X 1015 British thermal units (Btu), 3.7 X 1015 Btu, and 2.5 X 1015 Btu, respectively. The relative total recoverable resources are 134 X 1015 Btu for coal, 11.2 X 1015 Btu for petro-leum, and 9.5 X 1015 Btu for natural gas (Parent, 1979). Since coal represents roughly 86 percent of the total U.S. resource, one would expect its use to approximate that percentage of the energy input in the United States. But actually, the percentage of coal in the fossil energy input is only 21 percent. Petroleum and natural gas consumption accounts for nearly 75 percent. Almost half (48 percent) of the fossil energy used in the United States consists of petroleum and its products. Since some 45 percent of this petro-leum must now be imported, it is essential that our primary re-source, coal, be used in increasing amounts. This paper presents



The U.S. Outlook for Supplemental Gas

Arlon R. Tussing

Year: 1980
Volume: Volume 1
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol1-No1-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
Current forecasts of natural gas demand in the United States through the turn of the century are lower than projections made only a few years ago, and fall far short of the volumes the economy is technically capable of absorbing even with its existing stock of energy-using equipment.



The Benefits of an Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline

Douglas B. Fried and William F. Hederman, Jr.

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No1-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
The United States, reacting to rising prices and supply uncertainties of imported energy, has begun to move aggressively to develop its untapped domestic energy resources. The Department of Energy has recently awarded funds to support feasibility studies as well as design, engineering, and construction activities for 110 synthetic fuel projects. Despite pressures for budgetary restraint, Congress has steadily increased (in real terms) budgets for research and development for a variety of technologies utilizing solar and geothermal energy. The federal government has leased potentially oil-rich offshore tracts in the Northeast despite strong opposition from the fishing industry and environmental groups. Yet, despite this apparent scramble to exploit domestic energy resources, a variety of factors has delayed construction of the pipeline that would transport natural gas from deposits on Alaska's North Slope to gas markets in the lower 48 states.



Natural Gas Curtailment Policy: Where Do We Go from Here?

George R. HallVice

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No4-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
Natural gas production in the United States peaked in 1973 at 22.6 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) per year and has averaged about 19 Tcf each year since then. A more basic measure of natural gas supply is reserve additions, the amount of natural gas added to the nation's producible inventory. Reserve additions dropped precipitously in 1967, from 21 Tcf to 13.7 Tcf per year. Since then, they have fluctuated around 9 Tcf per year.



Supplemental Sources of Natural Gas: An Economic Comparison

Alvin Kaufman, Susan J. Bodilly

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No4-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
Over the past decade, the United States has become increasingly dependent on imported energy, and there has been an attendant impact on the balance of payments. For example, 43 percent of the oil used in the United States was imported in the first six months of 1979, compared with 35 percent in 1973. Of these 1979 imports, 67 percent was supplied by the OPEC countries, including 40 percent from Arab producers. During the six months preceding the 1973-74 embargo, Arab producers supplied only 15 percent of U.S. imported oil. At the same time, OPEC oil has increased in price, through the machinations of the cartel. The massive income transfer is indicated by the rise in the U.S. oil balance of payments bill, from $3.4 billion inthe first six months of 1973 to $24.4 billion during the first six months of 1979.



The Price Elasticity for Gasoline Revisited

Rolando F. Pelaez

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No4-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
Energy conservation has been a major goal of three administrations, yet disagreement about how to achieve it has hampered conservation efforts. Advocates of nonmarket rationing claim that gasoline demand is highly inelastic, and hence that higher prices would result mainly in substantial income redistribution. In contrast, economists typically point to the price mechanism as the best method for promoting conservation. Clearly the issue depends to a great degree on the price elasticity of demand for energy. Since nearly one-half of the petroleum consumed in the United States is used as motor fuel, this note focuses on the price elasticity for gasoline.



The Short-Run Residential Demand for Natural Gas

Roberta Barnes, Robert Gillingham, Robert Hagemann

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
Effective and efficient energy conservation policy requires accurate and comprehensive estimates of residential energy demand pa-rameters. These parameter estimates are among the most important inputs into informed policy decisions. In turn, accurate estimation of energy demand parameters requires realistic modeling of the consumer's demand behavior, detailed information on energy consumption, and careful treatment of any econometric problems created by the model and data base.



Taxation of Oil and Gas Revenues of Four Countries

John Helliwell, Philip K. Verleger, Jr., John Mitchell, Thomas R. Stauffer, James S. Moose, John F. Helliwell

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No2-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
Energy taxation is more complex and more controversial in Canada than in most or all other countries, for three main reasons. First, under the constitution, most natural resources are owned by the provinces, with important powers of regulation and taxation in the hands of the provincial and federal governments. Second, energy resources are very unevenly distributed among the provinces. Alberta, with less than 10 percent of Canada's population, accounts for 85 percent of Canada's nonfrontier onshore crude oil and natural gas. Finally, the Canadian oil and gas industry is largely foreign-owned and foreign-controlled.



The Potential Role of Natural Gas in a Major Oil Crisis

Benjamin Schlesinger, Nelson E. Hay, and Jacquelyn S. Mitchell

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No2-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
Most energy experts in the federal government involved with contingency planning concern themselves with what to do when or if "the balloon goes up"; i.e., after the nation's 6-million-barrel-per-day oil supply is substantially cut off.



European Reliance on Soviet Gas Exports: The Yamburg-Urengoi Natural Gas Project

Boyce L Greer and Jeremy L. Russell

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No3-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
Editor's Note: The proposal to construct a giant pipeline to transmit natural gas from the Soviet Union to Western Europe has received wide attention on both sides of the Atlantic. Its implications extend into all aspects of East-West relations, including security and economic effects on both the Soviet Union and the gas-importing countries. This article focuses on one main area of concern raised by the pipeline, dependence by Western Europe on Soviet gas. Given the controversial nature of the subject, we are especially interested in comments from our readers.




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