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Evaluating Alternative Energy Policies: An Example Comparing Transportation Energy Investments

James K. Binkley, Wallace E. Tyner, and Marie E. Matthews

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No2-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
Designing appropriate programs to deal with present and future energy problems faced by the United States has created a need for the evaluation and comparison of different policies. An important component of this is the generation of accurate information concerning the benefits and costs of alternative courses of action. Energy analysis is enormously complex, however, due to the pervasive influence of energy throughout the economy and the manifold factors that must be considered. Schmalensee has written that "discussions of energy policy, especially as regards new technologies, tend rapidly to become unwieldy because of the large number of serious complicating factors whose relevance is arguable" (1980, pp. 2-3). As a result of these complications, any information available to evaluate alternative energy policies Will almost of necessity be incomplete.



The International Energy Investment Dilemma

Paul Tempest

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No3-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
There never has been a global energy market. What there is, at the consumer end, is an amalgam of national energy systems developed from local resources onto which have been grafted various energy imports. Of these, the only truly internationally traded energy commodity is oil. For their base-load energy needs, most national economies have relied on committed systems of domestic supply usually embedded deeply in their own public utility infrastructure and industrial systems. The prices to the consumer of all these forms of energy are heavily masked by subsidy, taxation, and other forms of government control. The availability of domestic energy varies greatly from country to country. There are therefore great variations between countries (and also within countries) in the resource cost of energy and the price to the consumer.



Energy Economics in Developing Countries: Analytical Framework and Problems of Application

Mohan Munasinghe

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume 9
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-No1-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
The pervasive and vital role of energy in national economies indicates that the identification of energy issues and energy policy analysis and implementation are important areas of study. While the drop in world oil prices which began in 1986 has provided some relief to the economies of oil-importing nations, energy-related problems still preoccupy the minds of decision-makers in most developing countries. Thus, while most of the key energy issues identified during the past decade persist, the availability of adequate energy resources at reasonable cost remains a vital precondition for continued economic growth. Typically, energy investments still account for about 25 percent of total public capital investments in developing countries.



Unravelling a Riddle: The Outlook for Russian Oil

Campbell Watkins

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume 15
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-NoSI-8
View Abstract

Abstract:
Russia's oil output has been declining. Yet the potential for new discoveries and development remains huge. Whether these opportunities will be seized and current attrition arrested depends on the hydrocarbon sector regime now evolving. Uncertainties on legislation, jurisdictional boundaries, pricing policies and political structures make the investment climate less than benign. Such uncertainties lead to a very marked spread in expectations about future levels of Russian oil output.



Identifying Distributed Generation and Demand Side Management Investment Opportunities

Thomas E. Hoff

Year: 1996
Volume: Volume17
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol17-No4-4
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Abstract:
Distributed generation and targeted demand side management programs offer electric utilities alternatives to large transmission and distribution (T&P) system capacity investments. This paper presents a method to estimate how much a utility can afford to pay for these alternatives when the change in system capacity due to the distributed resource is constant from year to year and when there is no uncertainty. The method is concise, has intuitive appeal, has minimal data requirements, and is accurate when benchmarked against two existing case studies. Analysts who want to screen distributed resource investment opportunities with a minimal amount of effort will find the method particularly useful.





Cost, Contractors and Scale: An Empirical Analysis of the California Solar Market

Johannes Mauritzen

Year: 2017
Volume: Volume 38
Number: Number 6
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.38.6.jmau
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper presents an empirical analysis of the rapidly growing California rooftop solar photovoltaic market using detailed data of over 100,000 solar installations between 2007 and 2014. The rapid fall in the cost of solar panels stand central in the expansion of this market. I use a semi-parametric regression model to aid identification of cost factors by decomposing time-varying and cross-sectional components. I find that the use of Chinese manufactured panels are associated with costs that are 6% lower. Economies of scale at the local level (number of yearly installations in a zip code) and at the installation level (size of the installation) are also associated with lower costs. Higher subsidies, and higher contractor market-share are associated with higher costs. I use an exploratory analysis of the dominant contractor, SolarCity, to discuss non-cost factors in the expansion of the solar photovoltaic market.



Grid Investment and Support Schemes for Renewable Electricity Generation

Johannes Wagner

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.2.jwag
View Abstract

Abstract:
The unbundling of formerly vertically integrated utilities in liberalized electricity markets led to a coordination problem between investments in the regulated electricity grid and investments into new power generation. At the same time investments into new generation capacities based on weather dependent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy are increasingly subsidized with different support schemes. Against this backdrop this article analyzes the locational choice of private wind power investors under different support schemes and the implications on grid investments. I find that investors do not choose system optimal locations in feed-in tariff schemes, feed-in premium schemes and subsidy systems with direct capacity payments. Consequently, inefficiencies arise if transmission investment follows wind power investment. A benevolent transmission operator can implement the first-best solution by anticipatory investment behavior, which is however only applicable under perfect regulation. Alternatively a location dependent network charge for wind power producers can directly influence investment decisions and internalize the grid integration costs of wind power generation.





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