Facebook LinkedIn Instagram Twitter
Shop
Search
Begin New Search
Proceed to Checkout

Search Results for All:
(Showing results 1 to 10 of 119)

Next 10 >>


Optimal System Planning with Fuel Shortages and Emissions Constraints

Michael Einhorn

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No2-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
Electric utility system planners must design system capacity ex-pansion paths that satisfy generation requirements at least cost. Historically, doing this required information regarding the system load duration curve and alternative fuel and capital costs. By putting fuel and capital costs into a linear program, system designers could then calculate the amount of electricity that base, intermediate, and peaking plants should generate and how much capacity each plant type should have.



Global Energy and CO2 to the Year 2050

Joe Edmonds and John Reilly

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No3-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
One of the important by-products of the combustion of fossil fuelsis carbon dioxide (C02), a nontoxic, colorless gas with a faintly pungent odor and acid taste. Carbon dioxide is not commonly thought of as apollutant. Rather, COs plays an important role in the determination of the global climate. The presence of C02 in the atmosphere produces a "greenhouse effect," allowing incoming sunlight to penetrate but trapping heatradiated back from earth. Man's ability to significantly affect COs levels through use of fossil fuel gives rise to the possibility of climate change atunprecedented rates.



Uncertainty Analysis of the IEA/ORAU CO2 Emissions Model

J. M. Reilly, J. A. Edmonds, R. H. Gardner, and A. L. Brenkerf

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No3-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
Future levels of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels are an important determinant of the severity and timing of global warming due to elevated levels of radiatively active (greenhouse) gases in the atmosphere. Many studies have addressed this issue,. These include Rotty (1977), Keeling and Bacastow (1977), Siegenthaler and Oeschger (1978), JASON (1979), Marchetti (1980), IIASA in Haefele (1981), Lovins (1981), Hamm (1982), Nordhaus and Yohe (1983), and Reister and Rotty (1983). Ausubel and Nordhaus (1983) provide a recent critical review of emissions forecasts with a focus on methodological development, citing the advance in methodological sophistication leading to improvements in understanding long-term patterns of energy use and their relationship to CO2 emissions.



Cost-Effective Control Strategies for Energy-Related Transboundary Air Pollution in Western Europe

Heinz Welsch

Year: 1990
Volume: Volume 11
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol11-No2-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
In this paper a simulation model of the West European power plant industry, combined with transboundary source-receptor relationships, is used to determine cost-effective reduction rates for SO2 emissions in any one country so that certain, exogenously given, deposition reduction targets are attained. The overall costs implied by the proposed strategies, and their distribution among countries, are examined and compared to those associated with the traditional emission-standard approach. It is found that the cooperative and flexible strategies considered allow for overall cost savings of up to 60 percent, given the same degree of deposition reduction.



Introduction: Facts and Uncertainties

Loren C. Cox

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No1-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
The unusually hot summer and drought in 1988 in parts of North America stimulated wide discussions about the cause of these events. While most scientists now studying climate believe that the 1988 events were short-run phenomenon, some scientists and many policy makers in the U.S. Congress and Administration suggest that this weather was linked to global warming caused by a build-up of the so-called greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, methane and chlorofluorocarbons.



Economic Activity and the Greenhouse Effect

Yoshiki Ogawa

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No1-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
Global warming is recognized as one of the most important issues in international politics, although specialists are still uncertain about the role which various socio-economic factors play in global warming under a variety of conditions. Among the factors examined in this paper, the burning of fossil fuels bears the greatest responsibility for global CO2 emissions. Given the growth in emissions in the LDCs, global action to regulate emissions cannot be effective without their full participation and therefore north-south problems need to be addressed simultaneously, or before, the problem of global warming. The problem of global warming is becoming ever more urgent as energy demand has begun to increase again following the collapse of oil prices in 1986.



Productivity Trends and the Cost of Reducing CO2 Emissions

William W. Hogan and Dale W. Jorgenson

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No1-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
Adequate control of CO2 emissions may require a significant increase in energy price, which in turn wilt create long-term economic costs. This paper explores the effects of long-term productivity trends in the U.S. economy and relates them to the cost of reducing CO2 emissions. Technology change has been negatively correlated with energy prices and positively correlated with materials prices. Thus, if all prices remain constant expenditures on materials per unit of output will decline, and expenditures on energy per unity of output will increase. If energy prices increase, the rate of productivity growth will decrease. This trend will be very small, if measured on an annual basis, but eventually could be quite significant. A comparison with recent cost estimates of CO2 emission control suggests that this otherwise ignored productivity effect could be the largest component of a complete cost analysis.



Cutting CO2 Emissions: The Effects of Alternative Policy Approaches

John Whalley and Randall Wigle

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No1-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper starts from the premise that attempts to curtail global emissions of greenhouse gases are likely to be made in the next few decades. We discuss some of the possible international effects which could result from attempts to achieve such a cutback, and illustrate a methodology which we hope to extend, in subsequent work, to further evaluating the consequences of responding to the problem of global warming. We identify possible magnitudes of effects of cutting global CO2 emissions, and illustrate ways in which inter-country terms-of-trade effects and changes in trade patterns may occur.



Environmental Issues in the Future Development of the USSR Energy Systems

V. M. Yudin and O.K. Makarov

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No3-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
With today's scientific and technological breakthroughs, the wellbeing of any society is strongly dependent on the scale of its provision of energy resources and on the state of its environment. These issues, both currently and in the long run, have become the most urgent ones demanding a joint endeavour from all the countries on the globe.



Limits on the Economic Effectiveness of a Carbon Tax

Robert K Kaufmann

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No4-9
View Abstract

Abstract:
Much of the discussion regarding policies to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases focuses on least-cost strategies. Policies that minimize costs are desirable because they are economically more efficient than policies that are based on a command and control strategy (Gasloms and Stram, 1990). Among the many least-cost policies now under consideration, a carbon tax has received the most attention. As currently envisioned, a carbon tax would be levied on users of fossil fuels according to the amount of carbon that is emitted when the fuel is burned. Because the combustion of coal emits more CO2 per heat unit than oil, which emits more CO2 per heat unit than natural gas, the tax on coal would be larger than the tax on oil, which would be larger than the tax on natural gas.The fuel specific charges that would be imposed by a carbon tax are a popular policy option because many believe that a carbon tax will reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in an economically efficient manner. That is, a carbon tax will reduce the use of fossil fuels by spurring technical change and by inducing the substitution of capital, labour, and non-energy materials. Furthermore, a carbon tax will reduce emissions of CO2 by inducing substitution of fuels that emit less CO2 per heat unit. The reduction in emissions that is achieved by interfuel substitution is caused by the differences in the size of the tax on coal, oil, and natural gas. Because the tax on coal is largest, the price of coal will rise relative to oil and natural gas and users will substitute oil or natural gas for coal.




Next 10 >>

Begin New Search
Proceed to Checkout

 





function toggleAbstract(id) { alert(id); }