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The Impact of State Level Building Codes on Residential Electricity Consumption

Anin Aroonruengsawat, Maximilian Auffhammer, and Alan H. Sanstad

Year: 2012
Volume: Volume 33
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol33-No1-2
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Abstract:
This paper studies the impacts of state level residential building codes on per capita residential electricity consumption. We construct a timeline of when individual states first implemented residential building codes. Using panel data for 48 US states from 1970-2006, we exploit the temporal and spatial variation of building code implementation and issuance of building permits to identify the effect of the regulation on residential electricity consumption. Controlling for the effect of prices, income, and weather, we show that states that adopted building codes followed by a significant amount of new construction have experienced detectable decreases in per capita residential electricity consumption--ranging from 0.3-5% in the year 2006. Estimates are larger in states where codes are more stringent and more strictly enforced.

Keywords: Residential Electricity Consumption, Building Codes, Regulation



Real-time Feedback and Electricity Consumption: A Field Experiment Assessing the Potential for Savings and Persistence

Sebastien Houde, Annika Todd, Anant Sudarshan, June A. Flora , and K. Carrie Armel

Year: 2013
Volume: Volume 34
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.34.1.4
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Abstract:
Real-time information feedback delivered via technology has been reported to produce up to 20 percent declines in residential energy consumption. There are however large differences in estimates of the effect of real-time feedback technologies on energy use. In this study, we conduct a field experiment to obtain an estimate of the impact of a real-time feedback technology. Access to feedback leads to an average reduction in household electricity consumption of 5.7 percent. Significant declines persist for up to four weeks. In examining time of day reduction effects, we find that the largest reductions were observed initially at all times of the day but as time passes, morning and evening intervals show larger reductions. We find no convincing evidence that household characteristics explain heterogeneity in our treatment effects; we examine demographics, housing characteristics and psychological variables.



The Energy, Economic Growth, Urbanization Nexus Across Development: Evidence from Heterogeneous Panel Estimates Robust to Cross-Sectional Dependence

Brantley Liddle

Year: 2013
Volume: Volume 34
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.34.2.8
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Abstract:
This paper combines two aggregate production function models--one with urbanization as a shift factor and one that includes energy/electricity consumption and physical capital--to estimate the macro-level relationship among urbanization, energy/electricity consumption, and economic growth using a panel method that is robust to both cointegration and cross-sectional dependence. For four panels (comprising in turn high, upper middle, lower middle, and low income countries) GDP per capita, total final energy and electricity consumption per capita, gross fixed capital formation per capita, and urbanization were found to be I(1), cross-sectionally dependent, and cointegrated. The long-run elasticity estimates suggest (i) that urbanization is important to and associated with economic growth, (ii) that urbanization's impact on economic growth ranges from substantially negative to nearly neutral to positive as countries develop--an "urbanization ladder" effect, and (iii) that less developed countries are over-urbanized (their elasticities being negative).



Factors Affecting Renters' Electricity Use: More Than Split Incentives

Rohan Best, Paul J. Burke, Shuhei Nishitateno

Year: 2021
Volume: Volume 42
Number: Number 5
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.42.5.rbes
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Abstract:
This paper uses data from the 2015 Residential Energy Consumption Survey to explore the extent to which renters' electricity use in the United States exceeds that of otherwise similar non-renters. Renting households are found to use approximately 9% more electricity than non-renters when controlling for location, socioeconomic, and many appliance-quantity controls. There are multiple factors that explain this extra electricity use, including inferior energy efficiency of appliances, behavioral factors, differences in bill payment responsibilities, and additional reliance by renters on electric space and water heaters. The paper finds that none of these factors are dominant. The phenomenon of renters' (conditionally) higher electricity use is thus best understood as one that emerges from multiple sources.





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