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Natural Gas Availability and the Residential Demand for Energy

Gail R. Blattenberger, Lester D. Taylor, and Robert K.Rennhack

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No1-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
Not all households have access to pipeline-delivered natural gas.This fact affects not only the demand for natural gas but the demand for electricity and fuel oil as well. Since electricity and natural gas are substitutes in cooking, space heating, water heating, and (to a much lesser extent) cooling, the price elasticity of demand for electricity will be larger when gas is available than when it is not. Fuel oil and natural gas are substitutes in cooking, space heating, and water heating, so that oneshould also expect larger price elasticities for fuel oil when gas is available.



Notes - A Comparison of Original Costs and Trended Original Cost Ratemaking Methods

Robert E. Anderson and David E. Mead

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No2-11
No Abstract









Energy Demand Elasticities in Industrialized Countries: A Survey

George Kouris

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No3-5
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Abstract:
A high price elasticity for energy demand implies a long-term ability of the economy to absorb the impact of higher energy prices. Thus price shocks, after generating pronounced inflationary and recessionary effects over the short term, do not act as a constraint to economic growth over the longer term. By contrast, a low price elasticity implies weak reactions to increasing energy costs and a protracted adverse effect on output and inflation. Unfortunately, a survey of the literature on energy demand elasticities shows diverse results. Should econometric results be used for policymaking and planning, then a critical and eclectic attitude is imperative to screen out the most relevant aspects of the empirically determined price elasticities.



Residential Electricity Demand Modeling in the Australian Capital Territory: Preliminary Results

W. A. Donnelly

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No2-8
View Abstract

Abstract:
The demand for electricity has recently become a topic of major interest in Australia, where very little empirical analysis has been done (see Hawkins, 1975; Saddler et al., 1980; Department of National Development and Energy, 1981; Brian and Schuyers, 1981; and Donnelly and Saddler, 1982). Two of the policy issues being raised concern the appropriate pricing strategies that should be adopted by supplying authorities and the need for additional generating capacity. An understanding of the relative importance of the factors influencing electricity demand is required to aid public policy making, particularly since substantial investment is now being considered.



Residential Electricity Demand: A Suggested Appliance Stock Equation

Christopher Garbacz

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No2-11
View Abstract

Abstract:
A large amount of work in residential electricity demand has relied on logit estimation of a disaggregated appliance stock. (See the seminal work by McFadden et al., 1977.) While this approach may be suitable for certain types of models with certain goals in mind, a simple formulation of an appliance stock equation may sometimes be appropriate. For example, if the goal is to estimate seasonal patterns in elasticities employing a national micro-data set (as in the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey 1978-1979; see U.S. Department of Energy, 1980), then it may be appropriate to develop an appliance stock equation to predict the size of an appliance stock index (approximating a continuous variable). The present appliance stock equation is part of a three-equation model that is estimated in log-linear form via 2SLS.



Seasonal and Regional Residential Electricity Demand

Christopher Garbacz

Year: 1986
Volume: Volume 7
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol7-No2-9
View Abstract

Abstract:
Following the seminal work of McFadden. Puig, and Kirschner (1977) and the general availability of national microdata sets, residential energy demand studies have been conducted for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil. LP gas, and wood (see Garbacz, 1984, 1985). Using the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS) data, Garbacz (1984) developed a three-equation model (demand, price, and appliance stock) to estimate national electricity demand using two-stage least squares (2SLS) for house-holds by month. This study builds on the previous work to estimate elasticities by month and by region. It is hypothesized that elasticities vary substantially between the heating and cooling seasons. Previous work by Acton, Mitchell, and Sohiberg (1980); Parti and Parti (1980); Archibald, Finifter, and Moody (1982); Murray et al. (1978); and Garbacz (1984) supports this. Houthakker (1980), Halvorsen (1978), and Murray et al. (1978) also have found differences in elasticities by region.



Cost Shares, Own, and Cross-Price Elasticities in U.S. Manufacturing with Disaggregated Energy Inputs

Mahmood Moghimzadeh and Kern O. Kymn

Year: 1986
Volume: Volume 7
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol7-No4-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
Our purpose is to estimate cost shares and own-land cross-price elasticities of the demand for factors in the production of manufacturing output. To achieve more precise estimates than those of previous researchers, we do not consider energy a single unified input. It is disaggregated instead into electric and nonelectric energy. The period considered spans the years 1954 to 1977. The following brief review of the literature outlines the background.Hudson and Jorgenson (1974) studied the demand for manufacturing production factors. They subsequently estimated the own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for the various factors by applying a translog cost function at the industry level. Their model included capital, labor, energy, and nonenergy inputs.



Oil Demand Elasticities in Nigeria

Felix B. Dayo and Anthony O. Adeghulugbe

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No2-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
Crude oil, which was first discovered in Nigeria in 1956 by the Shell-BP Development Company, has contributed significantly to the country's economic development. The exploitation of this resource transformed Nigeria's balance of trade from chronic deficits to huge surpluses (especially during the early-to-mid 1970s). This occurred as a result of the increase in the volume as well as the value of crude oil during this period. However, the surplus started to decline in the mid-1970s due to a combination of increased imports (resulting from the oil-boom mentality that had developed) and reduced crude oil exports (caused by the downward trend in world economic situations). By late 1977 the country again had a deficit on visible trade.



The Demand for Natural Gas: A Survey of Price and Income Elasticities

Mohammed A. Al-Sahlawi

Year: 1989
Volume: Volume 10
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol10-No1-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
My purpose has been to survey and review price and income elas-ticities of the demand for natural gas. The surveyed studies are classified by demand type, where the functional forms, estimation techniques, data types, estimated periods and concerned countries or regions are indicated. Studies have demonstrated that there is variation in price and income elasticity estimates. These discrepancies are due to differing estimated periods, various data sources, structural changes, geographical differentials, and the distinction between different demand types. In the short run, it appears that industrial demand and residential-commercial demand are inelastic with respect to price and income. Industrial demand is more responsive to income than residential-comercial demand in the short run as well as in the long run. This might be caused by the differences between natural gas end uses.



The Effect of Energy Aggregation on Energy Elasticities: Some Evidence from U.S. Manufacturing Data

Sang V. Nguyen and Stephen H. Andrews

Year: 1989
Volume: Volume 10
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol10-No1-13
View Abstract

Abstract:
Measuring energy input plays an important role in many empirical studies, such as analyses of energy demand, efficiency, and productivity. Yet energy is a complex concept and difficult to measure. As a result, energy studies have used energy aggregates constructed based on different aggregation methods. Different aggregates could lead to significantly different results, thus affecting the evaluation of alternative energy policies as well as other economic inferences.




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