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An Integrated Framework for Energy Pricing in Developing Countries

Mohan Munasinghe

Year: 1980
Volume: Volume 1
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol1-No3-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, decisionmakers in an increasing number of countries have realized that energy sector investment planning and pricing should be carried out on an integrated basis, e.g., within the framework of a national energy master plan that determines energy policy, ranging from short-run supply-demand management to long-run planning. However, in practice investment planning and pricing are still carried out on an ad hoc and at best partial or subsector basis. Thus, electricity and oil subsector planning have traditionally been carried out independent of each other as well as independent of other energy subsectors. As long as energy was cheap, such partial approaches and the resulting economic losses were acceptable, but lately, with rising energy costs and changes in relative fuel prices



The Alcohol Fuels Option in the Third World

William Ramsay

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No1-7
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Abstract:
Energy planners in developing areas have become increasingly interested in the possibility of using alcohol-either ethanol (grain alcohol) or methanol (wood alcohol) as a substitute for gasoline refined from imported oil. The most prominent example is Brazil, where there has been interest in alcohol fuels for the past fifty years, and where a serious alcohol program has been in place since 1975 (Hammond, 1977). Brazil is the leader, but not the only participant, in such work. Other Latin American countries, like Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic, have expressed great interest in alcohol, and Colombia has committed itself to large-scale production of alcohol during the 1980s. Asian countries, such as Thailand and Indonesia, have investigated the option, and serious work is being done in Papua New Guinea (IEE, 1980, pp. 27-29). And, of course, planners in Third World countries are influenced by the current gasohol program in the United States, by programs in New Zealand and Australia, and by experiments with methanol in West Germany and Sweden (LEE, 1980, pp. 24-26).



The U.N. Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy: Response to the Challenge of the Global Energy Transition

Morris Miller

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No3-11
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Abstract:
The world community is being forced to navigate a transition, over the next few decades, to a future that must entail a radical shift away from dependence on hydrocarbons. The pressure for change arising from the 1973 "oil price shock" is mounting with each year, despite the periodic respites characterized as "oil gluts."



Oil and Energy Demand in Developing Countries in 1990

Charles Wolf, Jr., Daniel A. Relles, Jaime Navarro

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No4-1
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Abstract:
How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade? Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important? How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs?In the study on which this article is based, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years.' Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based.



Nuclear Power for Developing Countries: Attainable Within This Century?

Eli B. Roth

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No2-4
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Abstract:
To use or not to use nuclear power for generating electricity has, in many parts of the world, become as much an emotional issue as an economic or technical one. Probably this is even more so in developed than in developing countries. The menacing worldwide energy misallocations and shortages have been the subject of a number of conferences, workshops, articles, studies, and - in the United States at least - of pronouncements by advocates ranging in style and substance from Jane Fonda to Barry Commoner to Edward Teller. It is not necessary to take sides here on the narrower question of whether any country in particular should try to use nuclear power for electricity or should try to avoid it. But except perhaps for antinuclear diehards, surely anyone concerned with the plight of developing countries, whose other energy resources are often wholly inadequate, must be interested in finding a satisfactory way to open up for those countries, or to keep open, the nuclear option.



Estimation of Energy Demand: The Developing Countries

Joy Dunkerley

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No2-5
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Abstract:
The estimation of energy demand, including conservation possibilities, is now widely recognized as a topic of major importance in both industrial and developing countries. Recent rises in oil prices and the possibility of both long- and short-term supply disruptions or shortages have focused the attention of energy planners throughout the world on how much energy might be consumed in the future, and to what extent energy consumption is sensitive to different kinds of conservation measures.



The Economics of Gas Utilizationin a Gas-Rich, Oil-Poor Country: The Case of Bangladesh

Gulder Schramm

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No1-3
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Abstract:
It has become an article of faith that clean-burning, low-polluting natural gas is a premium fuel and that on a net heat basis it is inherently more valuable than its closest competitor, fuel oil. This conclusion has been drawn by comparing pollution characteristics of both fuels. While the conclusion is correct, it is correct only in regions that have free access to both natural gas and oil delivered to the user's premises at similar costs per Btu.



Appropriate Financing for Petroleum Development in Developing Countries

Tamir Agmon, Donald R. Lessard, and James L. Paddock

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No3-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
The availability of appropriate financing is likely to be a dominant factor determining the scope and pace of energy investment by developing countries in the 1980s. Reliance on self-finance will severely limit development for most countries, but traditional external finance-credit from private banks or multilateral agencies such as the World Bank-will probably play a smaller role than it did in the 1970s. External financing is less likely to be readily available now; at the same time, borrowers have become more aware of its limitations. Because of the time lags and uncertainties involved in most energy-related investments, the nature and volume of financing are likely to have a significant impact on the character and rate of investment.1 In fact, for enterprises or governments that are constrained1. While the relevance of finance to energy policy is clear, the research conducted to date has only scratched the surface. In one of the earliest studies of links between energy and finance, Agmon et al. (1979) examined the financial behavior of key OPEC members and considered the likely effect of changes in financial markets on their capacity and production decisions. Ben-Shahar (1976) and Moron (1978) evaluated the "revenue needs" of OPEC countries and related them to oil production scenarios. Dailami (1978, 1979a, 1979b) constructed econometric macrofinancial models of several oil-exporting countries; he then analyzed the impact of oil revenues on the countries' economy and the attendant influence of policy variables.



Book Review - Oil Supply and Prices: What Went Right in 1980?

R. Glenn Hubbard

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No3-13
No Abstract



Book Review - Petroleum Tax Analysis: North Sea

Jim Moose

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No3-14
No Abstract







Energy Demand in Jordan: A Case Study of Energy-Economy Linkages

Charles R. Blitzer

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No4-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
Higher world oil prices in the past decade have caused serious economic disruptions in most developing countries, which as a group are highly dependent on imported oil in relation to both the sizes of their economies and their total imports. I Increased oil bills have frequently led to lower aggregate growth rates, more severe balance-of-payments and debt problems, disruptions in energy-using sectors, and domestic inflation. Whether or not world oil prices resume their upward spiral, the oil-importing developing countries will continue to face serious macro-economic adjustment problems related in one way or another to energy.




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