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Global Energy and CO2 to the Year 2050

Joe Edmonds and John Reilly

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No3-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
One of the important by-products of the combustion of fossil fuelsis carbon dioxide (C02), a nontoxic, colorless gas with a faintly pungent odor and acid taste. Carbon dioxide is not commonly thought of as apollutant. Rather, COs plays an important role in the determination of the global climate. The presence of C02 in the atmosphere produces a "greenhouse effect," allowing incoming sunlight to penetrate but trapping heatradiated back from earth. Man's ability to significantly affect COs levels through use of fossil fuel gives rise to the possibility of climate change atunprecedented rates.



Changing Climate and Energy Modeling: A Review

John Reilly and Jae Edmonds

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-13
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, the greenhouse problem has aroused widespread public concern. Changing Climate, a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1983), represents a useful and timely synthesis of current scientific investigations of the impact of greenhouse gases on climate and society. The report is notable both for the research it documents and its influence on the public awareness of the issue.



The Cost of Capital: Estimating the Rate of Return for Public Utilities

Donna Smith

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-14
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, the greenhouse problem has aroused widespread public concern. Changing Climate, a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1983), represents a useful and timely synthesis of current scientific investigations of the impact of greenhouse gases on climate and society. The report is notable both for the research it documents and its influence on the public awareness of the issue.



The Regulation of Public Utilities: Theory and Practice

Richard L. Gordon

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-15
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, the greenhouse problem has aroused widespread public concern. Changing Climate, a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1983), represents a useful and timely synthesis of current scientific investigations of the impact of greenhouse gases on climate and society. The report is notable both for the research it documents and its influence on the public awareness of the issue.



Coal's Contribution to U.K. Self-Sufficiency

Richard L. Gordon

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-16
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, the greenhouse problem has aroused widespread public concern. Changing Climate, a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1983), represents a useful and timely synthesis of current scientific investigations of the impact of greenhouse gases on climate and society. The report is notable both for the research it documents and its influence on the public awareness of the issue.



Electricity's Contribution to U.K. Self-Sufficiency

Richard L. Gordon

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-17
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, the greenhouse problem has aroused widespread public concern. Changing Climate, a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1983), represents a useful and timely synthesis of current scientific investigations of the impact of greenhouse gases on climate and society. The report is notable both for the research it documents and its influence on the public awareness of the issue.



Oil's Contribution to U.K. Self-Sufficiency

Richard L. Gordon

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-18
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, the greenhouse problem has aroused widespread public concern. Changing Climate, a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1983), represents a useful and timely synthesis of current scientific investigations of the impact of greenhouse gases on climate and society. The report is notable both for the research it documents and its influence on the public awareness of the issue.



America's Electric Utilities: Past, Present, and Future

Harry M. Trebing

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-19
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, the greenhouse problem has aroused widespread public concern. Changing Climate, a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1983), represents a useful and timely synthesis of current scientific investigations of the impact of greenhouse gases on climate and society. The report is notable both for the research it documents and its influence on the public awareness of the issue.



The Politics of Middle Eastern Oil

Dankwart A. Rustow

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-21
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, the greenhouse problem has aroused widespread public concern. Changing Climate, a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1983), represents a useful and timely synthesis of current scientific investigations of the impact of greenhouse gases on climate and society. The report is notable both for the research it documents and its influence on the public awareness of the issue.



Reforming the Regulation of Electric Utilities

Lester P. Taylor

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-22
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, the greenhouse problem has aroused widespread public concern. Changing Climate, a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1983), represents a useful and timely synthesis of current scientific investigations of the impact of greenhouse gases on climate and society. The report is notable both for the research it documents and its influence on the public awareness of the issue.



Markets for Power: An Analysis for Electric Utility Deregulation

Milton Z. Kafoglis

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-20
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, the greenhouse problem has aroused widespread public concern. Changing Climate, a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1983), represents a useful and timely synthesis of current scientific investigations of the impact of greenhouse gases on climate and society. The report is notable both for the research it documents and its influence on the public awareness of the issue.



Energy Today and Tomorrow

William A. Vogely

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-23
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, the greenhouse problem has aroused widespread public concern. Changing Climate, a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1983), represents a useful and timely synthesis of current scientific investigations of the impact of greenhouse gases on climate and society. The report is notable both for the research it documents and its influence on the public awareness of the issue.



Uncertainty Analysis of the IEA/ORAU CO2 Emissions Model

J. M. Reilly, J. A. Edmonds, R. H. Gardner, and A. L. Brenkerf

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No3-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
Future levels of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels are an important determinant of the severity and timing of global warming due to elevated levels of radiatively active (greenhouse) gases in the atmosphere. Many studies have addressed this issue,. These include Rotty (1977), Keeling and Bacastow (1977), Siegenthaler and Oeschger (1978), JASON (1979), Marchetti (1980), IIASA in Haefele (1981), Lovins (1981), Hamm (1982), Nordhaus and Yohe (1983), and Reister and Rotty (1983). Ausubel and Nordhaus (1983) provide a recent critical review of emissions forecasts with a focus on methodological development, citing the advance in methodological sophistication leading to improvements in understanding long-term patterns of energy use and their relationship to CO2 emissions.



Introduction: Facts and Uncertainties

Loren C. Cox

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No1-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
The unusually hot summer and drought in 1988 in parts of North America stimulated wide discussions about the cause of these events. While most scientists now studying climate believe that the 1988 events were short-run phenomenon, some scientists and many policy makers in the U.S. Congress and Administration suggest that this weather was linked to global warming caused by a build-up of the so-called greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, methane and chlorofluorocarbons.



Formulating Greenhouse Policies in a Sea of Uncertainty

Lester B. Lave

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No1-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
To prevent major global climate change all countries must begin to act now. However, there is no agreement on how rapidly greenhouse gases will be emitted over the next century, how rapidly they will accumulate in the atmosphere, what will be the cost of abatement, how large the climate change will be, or even whether the change will be predominantly beneficial or harmful. Beyond agreeing that greenhouse gases are likely to result in atmospheric warming, other factors held constant, there is no consensus on any of these questions.



The Cost of Slowing Climate Change: a Survey

William D. Nordhaus

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No1-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
Policies to deal effectively and efficiently with the threat of greenhouse warming must balance the costs of slowing climate change against the potential damages. This survey discusses one half of this question, the costs of slowing climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The analysis provides estimates of the cost of reducing chlorofluorocarbon and CO2 emissions, and inquires into the costs of using forestry options to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. A promising new approach, the use ofgeoengineering, is discussed qualitatively.



EPA's Scenarios for Future Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Warming

Daniel A. Lashof

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No1-8
View Abstract

Abstract:
While it is not possible to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations immediately, a global commitment to reducing emissions would decrease the risks of global warming regardless of uncertainties about the response of the climate system. Scenario analyses conducted by EPA for a Report to Congress on Policy Options for Stabilizing Global Climate indicate that if no policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions are undertaken, the equivalent of a doubling of carbon dioxide would occur between 2030 and 2040, and the Earth might be committed to a global warming of 2-4�C(3-7�F) by 2025 and 3-6�C(4-10�F) by 2050. Early application of existingand emergingtechnologies designed among other things, to increase the efficiency of energy use, expand the use of non fossil energy sources, reverse deforestation, and phase out chlorofluorocarbons, could reduce the global warming commitment in 2025 by about one fourth, and the rate of climatic change during the next century by at least 60%. A global commitment to rapidly reducing greenhouse gas emissions could stabilize the concentrations of these gases by the middle of the next century, perhaps limiting global warming to less than 2�C(3�F).



Comparing the Effects of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Global Warming

Richard S. Eckaus

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No1-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper analyses the usefulness as a policy tool of a physical index of radiative forcing of a greenhouse gas, the Global Warming Potential (GWP), as proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It is shown that the economic opportunity costs of an increment in radiative forcing will vary over time, while the GWP implicitly sets these costs equal. The GWP can, therefore, play no role in policy making.



Climate Control Efficiency

G.D. Ferrier and J. G. Hirschberg

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No1-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper presents an application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to energy audit data by defining climate control systems as production processes. This method is proposed as an alternative to the use of regression based models which have been used in previous analyses of this type of data. The advantage of this method is the ability to compute relative efficiency measures for each observation in the data and to define these values without the assumption of a particular specification of the technology. Furthermore, this method can be used with a large number of inputs and outputs.



The Structure and Intensity of Energy Use: Trends in Five OECD Nations

Richard B. Howarth, Lee Schipper, and Bo Andersson

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume 14
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No2-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
Ths paper examines trends in the structure and intensity of final energy demand in five OECD nations between 1973 and 1988. Our focus is on primary energy use, which weights fuels by their thermal content and multiplies district heat and electricity by factors of 1.15 and 3.24 to approximate the losses that occur in the conversion and distribution of these energy carriers. Growth in the level of energy-using activities, given 1973 energy intensities (energy use per unit of activity), would have raised primary energy use by 46% in the U. S., 42%, in Norway, 33% in Denmark, 37% in West Germany, and 53% in Japan. Reductions in end-use energy intensities, given 1973 activity levels, would have reduced primary energy use by 19% in the U.S., 3% in Norway, 20% in Denmark, 15% in West Germany, and 14% in Japan. Growth in national income paralelled increases in a weighted index of energy-using activities in the U. S., West Germany, and Denmark but substantially outstripped activity growth in Norway and Japan. We conclude that changes in the structure of a nations economy may lead to substantial changes in its energy/GDP ratio that art? unrelated to changes in the technical efficiency of energy utilization. Similarly, changes in energy intensities may be greater or less than the aggregate change in the energy/GDP ratio of a given country, a further warning that this ratio may be an unreliable indicator of technical efficiency.




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