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Cogeneration in the People's Republic of China

Qu Yu

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No2-9
View Abstract

Abstract:
Cogeneration refers to the combined generation of heat and electric power. A common application is district heating. Cogeneration's ad-vantage stems from savings in investment and operating expenditures, and frequently also from greater reliability. It is geographically more restricted than large electricity networks since heat losses limit its distance from the generating station. Its optimal applications are therefore in load-intensive regions.



Biogas Development in India and the PRC

V. P. Kharbanda and M. A. Qureshi

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
The years since the 1973 spurt in oil prices have witnessed a growing interest in renewable energy sources. Increased attention has been paid to the development of technologies using new and renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, tidal, biomass, and hydropower. These sources are all the more important in developing countries with scarce conventional sources of energy like coal and oil. The new and renewable energy resource systems offer attractive prospects because they are pollution-free, unlimited, and often cheap. They can also help preserve ecosystems and retard degradation of the environment. Moreover, renewable energy resources can be developed extraordinarily rapidly, as shown by the experience with wood fuel in United States, small hydropower and biogas in the PRC, and energy crops in Brazil. In some countries technical advances have brought wind machines, solar cells, and biogas close to commercialization for heating and electricity generation. Thus far, over 3 million solar water heaters have been sold in Japan and over 5 million wood stoves in the United States.



Energy Prospects and Policies in the PRC

Lu Yingzhong

Year: 1986
Volume: Volume 7
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol7-No3-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
Commercial energy consumption (excluding rural areas) in the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1983 amounted to some 656 million tons coal equivalent (tce), third largest in the world. In contrast to most developed and developing countries (except the USSR and the OPEC nations), the PRC is able to meet all its commercial energy needs from a variety of domestic sources. Starting from the very low level of 1949 (when the present regime came to power), total energy production increased by 27.65 times, more rapidly than the gross national product (19.9 times). Energy consumption per capita also has increased substantially-13.6 times during the period. However, it is still relatively low-640 kgce in 1980 as against the world average of about 2200 kgce. Further sizable demand increases are bound to occur as the PRC's development proceeds.



P.R.C.'s Price Reform and the Trend in Energy Prices

Li Zheng, Zhang Jian

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume_9
Number: Special Issue 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-NoSI1-3
No Abstract



Energy Consumption and Economic Activity in China

Chuanlong Tang and Sumner J. La Croix

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume14
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No4-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper uses province-level cross-section data to explore the relationship between energy consumption and economic activity in China. Our key finding is that the income elasticity of energy consumption is approximately 1.0. When a province exports energy or has significant amounts of heavy industry, its energy consumption is higher. However, income elasticities are similar across energy exporting and -importing provinces. Energy consumption is lower in coastal provinces than inland provinces, but the income elasticity is higher in the rapidly developing coastal provinces. We conclude that China's economy is unlikely to become significantly more energy-intensive during the 1990s.



Forecasting the Demand for Energy in China

Hing Lin Chan and Shu Kam Lee

Year: 1996
Volume: Volume17
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol17-No1-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
In this paper we use a cointegration and vector error-correction model to analyze the energy consumption behavior of China. In formulating a model suitable to China, it is found that not only conventional variables such as energy price and income are important, but the share of heavy industry output in the, national income is also a significant factor. With the help of a vector errorcorrection model, we predict that China will need approximately 1.42 billion tons of standard coal equivalent by the end of this century, representing a 44 percent increase compared with 1990.



Why Has the Energy-Output Ratio Fallen in China?

Richard F. Garbaccio, Mun S. Ho and Dale W. Jorgenson

Year: 1999
Volume: Volume20
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol20-No3-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
In China, between 1978 and 1995, energy use per unit of GDP fell by 55 percent. There has been considerable debate about the major factors responsible for this dramatic decline in the energy-output ratio. In this paper we use the two most recent input-output tables to decompose the reduction in energy use into technical change and various types of structural change, including changes in the quantity and composition of imports and exports. In performing our analysis we are forced to deal with a number of problems with the relevant Chinese data and introduce some simple adjustments to improve the consistency of the input-output tables. Our main conclusion is that between 1987 and 1992, technical change within sectors accounted for most of the fall in the energyoutput ratio. Structural change actually increased the use of energy. An increase in the import of some energy-intensive products also contributed to the decline in energy intensity.



The Effect of Market Reforms on Structural Change: Implications for Energy Use and Carbon Emissions in China

Karen Fisher-Vanden

Year: 2003
Volume: Volume24
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol24-No3-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper assesses the role played by market reforms in shaping the future level and composition of production, energy use, and carbon emissions in China. Arguments have been made that reducing distortions in China s economy through market reforms will lead to energy efficiency improvements and lower carbon emissions in China. However, these arguments are based on partial and not general equilibrium analyses, and therefore overlook the effects of market reforms on economic growth and structural change. The results suggest that further implementation of market reforms could result in a structural shift to less carbon-intensive production and thus lower carbon emissions per unit GDP. However, this fall in carbon intensity is not enough to compensate for the greater use of energy as a result of market reforms due to higher economic growth and changes in the composition of production. Therefore, China s transition to a market economy could result in significantly higher economic growth, energy use, and carbon emissions. These results could have implications for other countries considering or undergoing market transition.



Interregional Sharing of Energy Conservation Targets in China: Efficiency and Equity

Dan Wei and Adam Rose

Year: 2009
Volume: Volume 30
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol30-No4-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
Energy conservation is a long-term strategic policy in China to support its economic and social development. This strategy is important for saving resources, protecting the environment, and ensuring a secure supply of energy. However, energy conservation often involves large amounts of investment and may also have dampening impacts on some local and regional economies. Moreover, energy conservation has many features of a public good. Therefore, government policy will have to play a strong role to foster local efforts and interregional cooperation on this issue. This paper analyzes a promising policy instrument � an interregional energy conservation-quota trading system. An operational model is developed to simulate the workings of this policy instrument for a variety of quota allocations among regions. The results indicate that a tradable quota system can help China achieve its conservation target in a cost-effective way and in accordance with its regional development strategy.



Modeling and Analysis of the International Steam Coal Trade

Clemens Haftendorn and Franziska Holz

Year: 2010
Volume: Volume 31
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol31-No4-10
View Abstract

Abstract:
Coal continues to play an important role in the global energy sector and with the increase in international trade a global market for steam coal has de�veloped. We investigate market structure and recent price developments with a numerical modeling approach and develop two partial equilibrium models, a quantity based model and a model additionally incorporating energy values. We compare two possible market structure scenarios for the years 2005 and 2006: perfect competition and Cournot competition. Our chief finding is that, for both models, the simulation of perfect competition better fits the observed real market flows and prices. However, we also note that spatial price discrimination and a time lag in the pricing-in of capacity constraints are additional mechanisms in the market. From a modeling perspective, relying only on coal quantities leads to distortions in estimated trade flows, suggesting that an energy-based model is superior.




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