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Reliability in Multi-regional Power Systems: Capacity Adequacy and the Role of Interconnectors

Simeon Hagspiel, Andreas Knaut, and Jakob Peter

Year: 2018
Volume: Volume 39
Number: Number 5
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.39.5.shag
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Based upon probabilistic reliability metrics, we develop an optimization model to determine the efficient amount and location of firm generation capacity to achieve reliability targets in multi-regional electricity systems. A particular focus lies on the representation and contribution of transmission capacities as well as variable renewable resources. Calibrating our model with a comprehensive dataset for Europe, we find that there are substantial benefits from regional cooperation. The amount of firm generation capacity to meet a perfectly reliably system could be reduced by 36.2 GW (i.e., 6.4%) compared to an isolated regional approach, which translates to savings of 14.5 bn EUR. Interconnectors contribute in both directions, with capacity values up to their technical maximum of close to 200%, while wind power contributions are in the range of 3.8-29.5%. Furthermore, we find that specific reliability targets heavily impact the efficient amount and distribution of reliable capacity as well as the contribution of individual technologies.Keywords: Reliability of supply, Capacity adequacy, Multi-regional power system, Interconnector, Variable renewable energy

Ensuring Capacity Adequacy in Liberalised Electricity Markets

Nicolas Astier and Xavier Lambin

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.3.nast
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This paper studies wholesale electricity markets where an exogenous price cap is enforced, compromising both short- and long-term incentives. To guarantee capacity adequacy, policy-makers may provide support for generation through a capacity remuneration mechanism (CRM) and/or encourage demand response (DR). Such mechanisms are formalised within a common simple analytical framework, clarifying how these mechanisms relate to each other. We then divide them into two categories, depending on whether their implementation requires transactions to be made based explicitly on spot prices higher than the price cap. While mechanisms that keep implicit these high marginal costs are likely to be preferred from a political perspective, they also appear to be less efficient. If they are to be implemented nonetheless, we suggest that the price cap should be set higher than the marginal cost of the most expensive plant, and highlight that challenges for demand-response integration in CRMs remain.

Optimal Allocation of Variable Renewable Energy Considering Contributions to Security of Supply

Jakob Peter and Johannes Wagner

Year: 2021
Volume: Volume 42
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.42.1.jpet
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Electricity markets are increasingly influenced by variable renewable energy such as wind and solar power, characterized by a pronounced weather-induced variability and imperfect predictability. As a result, the evaluation of the capacity value of variable renewable energy, i.e., its contribution to security of supply, gains importance. This paper develops a new methodology to endogenously determine the capacity value in large-scale investment and dispatch models for electricity markets. The framework allows balancing effects to be accounted for that arise due to the spatial distribution of generation capacities and interconnectors. The practical applicability of the methodology is shown with an application for wind power in Europe. We find that wind power can substantially contribute to security of supply in a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050, with regional capacity values ranging from 1-40%. Analyses that do not account for the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the contribution of wind power to security of supply therefore lead to inefficient levels of dispatchable back-up capacity. Applying a wind power capacity value of 5% results in an overestimation of firm capacity requirements in Europe by 66 GW in 2050. This translates to additional firm capacity provision costs of 3.8 bn EUR per year in 2050, which represents an increase of 7%.

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