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Taxation of Oil and Gas Revenues of Four Countries

John Helliwell, Philip K. Verleger, Jr., John Mitchell, Thomas R. Stauffer, James S. Moose, John F. Helliwell

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No2-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
Energy taxation is more complex and more controversial in Canada than in most or all other countries, for three main reasons. First, under the constitution, most natural resources are owned by the provinces, with important powers of regulation and taxation in the hands of the provincial and federal governments. Second, energy resources are very unevenly distributed among the provinces. Alberta, with less than 10 percent of Canada's population, accounts for 85 percent of Canada's nonfrontier onshore crude oil and natural gas. Finally, the Canadian oil and gas industry is largely foreign-owned and foreign-controlled.



Canadian Oil and Gas Taxation

Campbell Watkins and Brian Scarfe

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-NoSI-3
No Abstract



Long-Run Effects of the Canadian National Energy Agreements

S. L. Schwartz, J. D. Fuller, and W. T. Ziemba

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No1-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
For the last decade Canadian energy policy and oil pricing policy have been subjects of heated debate, dividing the country into several interest groups. The debate began when the federal government shielded the Canadian consumer from rapid world oil price increases by freezing domestic wellhead prices and subsidizing oil imports. This created a single price for oil across the entire country (except for transportation cost differences). The subsidy was to be paid by an export tax equivalent to the difference between domestic price and the world price. This policy was seen as an immediate response to a short-term problem: either world prices would return to lower levels or domestic prices could slowly adjust to the higher level without creating a price shock. Once a subsidy is established, however, it is hard to withdraw. Industries and consumers that rely on low-cost oil can be expected to lobby for continued subsidies. By observing real costs, moreover, the Canadian subsidy destroyed incentives to conserve costly fuels (e.g., imported oil). And there was no incentive to increase domestic production of such valuable commodities. By intervening, the federal government appeared to take on the responsibility of maintaining a status quo with respect to regional income distribution. Thus the scene was set.



A Survey of Canadian Energy Policy: 1974-1983

Robert N. McRae

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
Canadian energy policies have been strongly influenced by external events. Like most other countries of the world, Canada adjusted its energy policies in reaction to the OPEC oil price shocks of 1973-1974 and 1979. Canadian energy policies also have been influenced by U.S. energy policies (through trade links) and by the dominant presence of many foreign-controlled multinational petroleum firms.



Canadian Natural Gas Exports, Domestic Gas Prices, and Future Gas Supply Costs

John Rowse

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No2-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
Exports of Canadian natural gas hasten the day when Canadians must pay higher gas prices. Hence the desirability of exporting natural gas is strongly affected by current and future supply costs. In this paper I analyze the interaction of Canadian gas exports, domestic gas prices, and future gas supply costs using a multitemporal nonlinear optimization model of natural gas allocation. Maximizing the present value of Canadian consumer plus producer surplus and net revenues from export sales, this model allows for the spatial dispersion of gas reserves and domestic markets, the spatial dispersion of U.S. markets, differing recovery profiles for different supply options, and rising marginal costs of conventional gas supplies.



Special Feature U.S.-Canadian Trade Agreement: An Energy Colloquium

Philip K. Verleger, Jr., Leonard Waverman, Andre Plourde, Arlon R. Tussing, Henry Lee, Jean-Thomas Bernard

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume 9
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-No4-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
The United States and Canada recently concluded a comprehensive agreement which calls for removing restrictions on trade between them, including energy. To explain the details of the energy portions of the agreement, we present by a series of comments by seven authors from both sides of the border. They deal with various energy sources (oil, gas, electricity and uranium) and with the situations peculiar to various geographic locations.



Chapter 14 - Strategy, Planning and Costing for Decommissioning in Canada

Nihal D. Jayawardene and Peter D. Stevens-Guille

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-NoSI-14
View Abstract

Abstract:
Ontario Hydro, the public-owned electric utility in Ontario, Canada, is one of the three largest nuclear utilities in the world. Decommissioning of its CANDU nuclear stations will begin about 2012 when the first station at Pickering is scheduled to be shut down after an operating period of 40 years. Other stations at Bruce and Darlington will be shut down and decommissioned subsequently. The cost of these operations is being charged to customers and is calculated using the annuity method. In this chapter, Nihal Jayawardene and Peter Stevens-Guille describe Ontario Hydro's decommissioning policy, financial planning and method of funding future decommissioning costs. One policy requirement is that future generations should not have to pay for decommissioning costs; deferring costs far into the future is not financially prudent. The current status of public opinion in Canada on decommissioning and radioactive waste management, including the tourism value of a decommissioned reactor, also is discussed.



Predicting the Discoveries and Finding Costs of Natural Gas: the Example of the Scotian Shelf

M. Power and J. D. Fuller

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No3-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
Predicting the discovery rate and marginal finding costs of natural gas resources requires a well-documented and long statistical history. For partially explored basins, the statistical history is often inadequate. Attempts at avoiding the problem have been made using probabilistic modelling approaches. These are used to estimate the parent population of pools available for discovery and the probable discovery rate. The phenomenon of economic truncation, however, calls into question the precision and utility of such estimates. Furthermore, the exploration process is known to be biased toward larger pools, but no method of determining the extent of the bias has been discussed in the literature to date. To avoid these defciencies, this paper employs the pool size distribution estimates routinely produced by geologists to drive a probabilistic modelling framework taking explicit account of the physical laws of resource depletion. The methodology is discussed and applied to Canada's Scotian Shelf. In order to put the predicted costs for the Scotian Shelf in perspective, the results are then compared to forecasts for Alberta.



How Big is the Electricity Conservation Potential in Industry?

Mark Jaccard, John Nyboer and Allan Fogwill

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume 14
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No2-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
For integrated resource planning, electric utilities require estimates of the technical and economic conservation potential. This potential depends upon the efficiencies of existing equipment, as well as efficiencies and costs of new equipment. The industrial conservation potential is generally concentrated in machine drive: electric motors and the various auxiliary technologies (pumps, fians, etc.) and process technologies (grinders, saws, etc.) to which they are connected. Most studies of industry focus on the potential due to more efficient motors and electronic adjustable speed drives. Our study of industry in British Columbia extends this analysis in two ways: (1) Alternative configurations and equipment types of key auxiliary and process equipment and connecting mechanisms are included in the database and analysis. (2) The relationship is specified between different auxiliary technologies and major steps in each production process. This allows for a more complete and dynamic estimate of conservation potential, showing how it changes as a function of structural and major process change in industry. The resulting industry-wide estimates of technical and economic conservation potential range from 35% to 40%, in the year 2010, with significant differences between end-uses (15% to 70%) and between industry branches (20% to 42%).



Natural Gas Trade in North America: Building up to the NAFTA

Andre Plourde

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume14
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No3-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper traces the evolution of natural gas trade among Canada, Mexico, and the United States in the 1967-1992 period. In addition, the provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that relate to natural gas trade are examined in the light of the corresponding aspects of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA). One of the main conclusions to emerge is that exports from Canada to the United States would likely continue to dominate North American natural gas trade patterns under the NAFTA. Past experience suggests that regulatory policies play a crucial role in determining trade patterns. In the case of Canada and the United States, the policies of deregulation implemented by the two countries prior to 1989 have proven to be much more important than has the FTA in encouraging cross-border trade in natural gas. Since the NAFTA allows Mexico to maintain a highly interventionist approach to energy policy, an internally-driven process of policy change will be required to liberalize natural gas trade between Mexico and the other parties to the Agreement. A few specific developments relating to natural gas trade among the NAFTA parties are also examined in the light of the Agreement.




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