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Biomass Energy Economics

John R. Benemann

Year: 1980
Volume: Volume 1
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol1-No1-11
View Abstract

Abstract:
The energy crisis has become a permanent fixture in our lives. It is apparent that the brief era, roughly 1920-1970, of rela-tively low and declining fuel costs is over for good. The world economic system must adjust to a new era of high-cost fuels, supply dislocations, and transition to new energy sources. Large uncertainties exist about the future availability, production costs, and market prices of the conventional fuels-oil, gas, and coal. Even greater uncertainties exist about the costs of the alternative energy sources-nuclear power and renewable resources, principally solar. As more information becomes available, nuclear power is constantly required to increase its safety level, becoming ever more expensive. The high-risk, very large, very long-term capital



Natural Gas from Seaweed: Is Near-Term R&D Funding by the U.S. Gas Industry Warranted?

Chennat Gopalakrishnan

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-10
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Energy, Economics, and Foregin Policy in the Soviet Union

Arthur W. Wright

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-11
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Modeling and Measuring Natural Resource Substitution

William A. Donnelly

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-12
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Energy, Foresight, and Strategy

Mark Newton Lowry

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-13
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Fuelwood in Urban Markets: A Case Study of Hyderabad

Ruthann C. Moomy

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-14
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Bioenergy and Economic Development

Ruthann C. Moomy

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-15
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Acknowledgments

n/a

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-16
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Traditional Energy Programs with an Open Access Forest Resource: Policy Implications

Hany R Clarke and Ram M. Shrestha

Year: 1989
Volume: Volume 10
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol10-No4-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
Policies for managing a forest subject to open access exploitation are discussed from the viewpoint of encouraging greater efficiency in the use of woodfuels. The usefulness of market and non-market policy options formanagingforestresources is shown to depend on whether fuelwood collection is the major cause of deforestation or not and, if so, whether fuelwood collection procedures have a market valuation.



The Global Impacts of Biofuel Mandates

Thomas W. Hertel, Wallace E. Tyner and Dileep K. Birur

Year: 2010
Volume: Volume 31
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol31-No1-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
The rise in world oil prices, coupled with heightened interest in the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions, led to a sharp increase in biofuels production around the world. Previous authors have devoted considerable attention to the impacts of these policies on a country-by-country basis. However, there are also strong interactions among these programs, as they compete in world markets for feedstocks and ultimately for a limited supply of global land. In this paper, we offer the first global assessment of biofuel programs � focusing particularly on the EU and US. We begin with an historical analysis of the period 2001-2006, which also permits us to validate the model. We then conduct an ex ante analysis of mandates in the year 2015. We find that if these mandates are indeed fulfilled the impact on global land use could be substantial, with potentially significant implications for greenhouse gas emissions.



Is Arbitrage Tying the Price of Ethanol to that of Gasoline? Evidence from the Uptake of Flexible-Fuel Technology

Alberto Salvo and Cristian Huse

Year: 2011
Volume: Volume 32
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol32-No3-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
Brazil is the only sizable economy to date to have developed a homegrown ubiquitously-retailed alternative to fossil fuels in light road transportation: ethanol from sugar cane. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the uptake of flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) has been tremendous. Five years after their introduction, FFVs accounted for 90% of new car sales and 30% of the circulating car stock. We provide a stylized model of the sugar/ethanol industry which incorporates substitution by consumers, across ethanol and gasoline at the pump, and substitution by producers, across domestic regional and export markets for ethanol and sugar. We argue that the model stands up well to the empirical co-movement in prices at the pump in a panel of Brazilian states. The paper offers a case study of how agricultural and energy markets link up at the very micro level.



Are there Carbon Savings from US Biofuel Policies? The Critical Importance of Accounting for Leakage in Land and Fuel Markets

Antonio M. Bento, Richard Klotz, and Joel R. Landry

Year: 2015
Volume: Volume 36
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.36.3.aben
View Abstract

Abstract:
We develop an analytical and numerical multi-market model that integrates land, fuel, and food markets, and link it with an emissions model to quantify the importance of carbon leakage relative to the intended emissions savings resulting from the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) for conventional biofuels. The expansion of biofuels mandated by the RFS can increase or decrease GHG emissions depending on the policy regime being evaluated. For example, replacing the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit (VEETC) with the RFS, as occurred at the end of 2011 when the VEETC was allowed to expire, would reduce emissions by 2.0 tgCO2e in 2015 for an expansion of ethanol of 11.4 billion liters. A policy regime consisting of the RFS alone would increase emissions by at least 4.5 tgCO2e for the same expansion of ethanol. Our findings highlight an important tension between land and fuel market leakage. Policy regimes that result in less land market leakage tend to lead to more domestic fuel market leakage per liter of ethanol added.





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