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International Steam Coal Market Integration

Raymond Li, Roselyne Joyeux and Ronald D. Ripple

Year: 2010
Volume: Volume 31
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol31-No3-10
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This paper examines the hypothesis that there is a single economic market for the international steam coal industry and investigates the degree of steam coal market integration over time. A regression test of convergence is employed to test for group convergence within a panel of steam coal exporting countries. The long-run relations between international steam coal prices are tested through cointegration analysis and the Kalman Filter analysis is employed to examine the convergence path of the price series. Monthly Free on Board (F.O.B.) prices for Australia, China, Colombia, Indonesia, Poland and South Africa between January 1995 and July 2007 are used. Considering the outcomes of the three econometric techniques as a whole, we conclude that the international steam coal market is generally integrated.

International Natural Gas market Integration

Raymond Li, Roselyne Joyeux, and Ronald D. Ripple

Year: 2014
Volume: Volume 35
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.35.4.7
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We explore the relationships among the North American, European and Asian natural gas markets for evidence of convergence and integration for the January 1997 through May 2011 period. The analyses are conducted under a multivariate framework, so the dynamics among the prices can be captured without the necessity of identifying an anchor price series. We find evidence of convergence among the Japanese, Korean, Taiwanese and UK prices. The North American price displays behaviour that is distinct from this group of prices. We conclude that there is not a fully integrated international natural gas market. The integration between European (represented by NBP) and Asian geographic regions appears to be due primarily to underlying contractual mechanisms specifically linking natural gas prices to oil prices rather than the result of market supply and demand interactions. We also find that the relationship among the Asian markets has evolved with Japanese prices adjusting to changes in South Korean and Taiwanese prices.

Economic Growth and Infrastructure Investments in Energy and Transportation: A Causality Interpretation of China’s Western Development Strategy

Alice Shiu, Raymond Li, and Chi-Keung Woo

Year: 2016
Volume: Volume 37
Number: China Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.37.SI1.ashi
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Were the large investments in energy and transportation infrastructure effective in fostering economic growth? Or did economic growth trigger these infrastructure developments? To answer these questions, we develop a simple model of production capacity constraints and use China's Western Development Strategy (WDS) as an example to investigate how the relationships among energy investment, transportation infrastructure expansion and economic growth differ in the pre-and post-WDS periods. Our Granger causality analysis uses a panel data sample for China's 30 provinces in the Western and non-Western regions for the period of 1991-2012. We find Granger causality only in the post-WDS period from transportation infrastructure expansion to economic growth and from economic growth to energy investment. These results suggest energy and transportation capacity constraints in the post-WDS period but not the pre-WDS period. Their policy implication is that China should continue its energy and transportation infrastructure investments with improved coordination.

Winter Residential Optional Dynamic Pricing: British Columbia, Canada

Chi-Keung Woo, Jay Zarnikau, Alice Shiu, and Raymond Li

Year: 2017
Volume: Volume 38
Number: Number 5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5547/01956574.38.5.cwoo
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This paper estimates the daily kWh responses on a working weekday of 1326 single-family-home residents who voluntarily participated in a residential optional dynamic pricing (RODP) pilot in the winter-peaking coastal province of British Columbia (BC) in western Canada. Based on the pilot's operation in November 2007-February 2008, we estimate that the kWh reduction in the peak period of 4-9 pm on a working weekday sans an in-home display (IHD) is: (a) 2.2% to 4.4% at time-of-use tariffs with peak-to-off-peak price ratios of 2.0 to 6.0; and (b) 4.8 to 5.3% at critical peak pricing tariffs with peak-to-off-peak price ratios of 8.0 to 12.0. The IHD approximately doubles these estimated peak kWh reductions. As BC residents already have smart meters with an IHD function, these findings recommend exploring the use of a system-wide RODP program to improve the BC grid's system efficiency.

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