Association Webinars: Electric Vehicles diffusion challenges



Since the last 3 years, Electric vehicles are booming around the world. In France 16% of the cars sold are Batteries Electric Cars and this situation raises new questions and requires exploring the economic consequences of this rapid diffusion for public policy, network developments and tariffs design. This webinar organized by the IAEE, and the Florence School of Regulation represents an opportunity to review Electromobility field experiments (By W. Kempton), Prospective Scenarios for 2030-2050 (by R. Lauvergne), Tariff Design for EVs (I. Freitas Gomes) and motorways electrification (Pierre de Firmas).

Icaro’s abstract of the paper “New electric vehicle rate design: An MPEC assessment”

High penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will deeply impact the management of electric power systems. To avoid costly grid reinforcements and the risk of load curtailment due to EV charging, indirect load control via adapted economic signals is a solution proposed by many utilities. Charging costs can be reduced by a domestic tariff applied only to EV charging using a dedicated measurement method of the load, while enhancing the flexibility offered by EVs. We develop a game-theoretical model expressed and treated as a Mathematical Program with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC) to capture the interaction between a National Regulatory Authority (NRA) designing these tariffs and heterogeneous agents. First, we analyze the conditions in which EV-only tariffs can be applied for domestic slow charging sessions by comparing different energy profiles. Second, we study the impact of EV charging on different tariff structures to identify the most efficient way of recovering network costs. The submetering concept under a pure volumetric tariff can bring yearly gains varying from $64 to $110 compared to the at rate. It depends on the share of investments on grid reinforcement that remain to be made. Finally, we derive policy implications from the results and earmark more sophisticated tariff designs for further investigation.

Remi’s abstract of the paper “Integration of electric vehicles into transmission grids: a case study on the economic impacts and generation-load adequacy in Europe in 2040”

In order to help decarbonize the transport sector, electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to develop in the following years, and the integration of a large number of them could challenge electricity systems. This paper aims at describing a methodology to study the economic impacts on power systems of the charge of EVs according to several connection behaviors of EV owners (referred to as systematic, when necessary and when convenient) and the range of recharge modes available (uncontrolled, time of use tariff, smart unidirectional charging, vehicle-to-grid). Subsequently, this framework is applied to a case study of high penetration of electric vehicles and renewable energy sources in Europe at the 2040-time horizon, in line with the European electricity generation mix evolution scenario “National Trends” of the ENTSO-E Ten- Year Network Development Plan. Results show that the electricity system is able to accommodate a large EV diffusion, and that connection to the grid behaviors and smart charging diffusion have notable impacts on EV demand and recharge prices.

Pierre de Firmas ENEDIS / RTE joint report on electrification of French Motorways: In order to anticipate connection needs and adapting networks and evaluating costs partners, Enedis and RTE carried out a joint study aimed at evaluating the sizing of stations of recharging necessary to accompany the development of electric mobility for light vehicles and connection costs and adapting the networks to supply these charging stations. 3 main results are highlighted: 1 - The charging infrastructure needs on motorway could represent in 2035 a total installed capacity between 2 GW (scenario reference) and 5 GW (high variant), i.e. between 4 MW and 12 MW on average per area. 2 - The networks will adapt to motorway recharging needs, without noticeable impact on financial trajectories. 3 - Anticipation by project leaders is a determining factor in the development of equipment for all service areas.

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Yannick Perez is Professor in Economics of Energy and Mobility at LGI- CentraleSupélec – University Paris-Saclay. He is also the Holder of the Armand Peugeot research chair on Electromobility with ESSEC Business School, CentraleSupélec and Stellantis. He is also part-time professor at the Florence School of Regulation, European University Institute, Italy. He took his PhD in economics at La Sorbonne in France. Since the last 10 years he published with his team more than 30 academic papers about Electromobilty issues.

Eric Hittinger is an Associate Professor in Public Policy and Affiliated Faculty at the Golisano Institute for Sustainability at Rochester Institute of Technology. He has a background in energy technology, policy, and economics, with a focus on understanding the benefits and limitations of emerging technologies, including electric vehicles, energy storage, and renewable electricity sources. Dr. Hittinger holds a PhD in Engineering and Public Policy from Carnegie Mellon University.


Willett Kempton is Research Director, Center for Carbon-free Power Integration; Professor, College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment; and Professor, Electrical and Computer Engineering – University of Delaware. Kempton leads several research teams working on electric vehicles, offshore wind power, and integration of variable generation into the electric power system. Dr. Kempton invented the technology for grid-integrated vehicles (GIV) with vehicle-to-grid power (V2G). This technology, now being commercialized, provides low-cost storage for the electric power grid, making it able to absorb more renewable energy. Many of these projects are conducted jointly with industrial partners.

Kempton has held research or teaching positions at Princeton University, Michigan State University, and the University of California campuses at Berkeley and Irvine, prior to joining the faculty at the University of Delaware in 1992. During Fall 2011 he was Otto Mønsted Gœst Professor, Center for Electric Power and Energy, Department of Electrical Engineering (DTU-Elektro), Danish Technical University.

Icaro Freitas Gomes (CentraleSupélec) has a doctorate in Economics. He completed his electrical and computer engineering course at the Federal University of Ceará in Brazil in 2015. He then joined the CentraleSupélec School of Engineering to graduate with a specialization in energy conversion. Then, he was a doctoral student in energy economics at the CentraleSupélec engineering school and a doctoral researcher at the VEDECOM Institute (Versailles, France) from September 2018 until September 2021. His research focuses on tariff design for vehicle-grid integration and analysis of network services with the Vehicle-to-grid concept in a context of energy transition. Icaro is currently working at the French TSO: RTE.

Remi Lauvergne Remi Lauvergne (French TSO / CentraleSupélec) is a PhD Student in Energy Economics at LGI- CentraleSupélec – Université Paris-Saclay and a doctoral researcher at RTE, the French TSO- R&D department (Paris, France). He completed his MSc in electrical engineering at CentraleSupélec in 2018. His research focuses on forecasting the impacts of vehicle-grid integration with the Vehicle-to-grid concept in a context of energy transition for Transmission System Operators.

Pierre de Firmas, Head of Electric Mobility at Enedis (French DSO)

Pierre de Firmas supervises Electrical Mobility initiatives at Enedis. He is an engineer graduated from CentraleSupélec electrical engineering school. He worked in several departments of the EDF Group.

He started in distribution with operational management, and then worked in the General Economic Studies Department (now the Group Strategy Department) before joining the Finance Department in charge of the Group Financial Trajectory and then the International Department, working successively on the development of the Group's positions in Italy, Russia CIS and Eastern Europe. After 5 years at Luminus (EDF wholly owned subsidiary in Belgium and #2 power company in the country), in charge of Strategy, Business Development and Innovation, he became Head of Electric Mobility at Enedis in March 2021.

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Event Date: November 3, 2021

Event Time: 10:00 AM - 12:00 PM Eastern Time

Topic: Electric Vehicles diffusion challenges

Moderators: Yannick Perez and Eric Hittinger

Speakers: Willett Kempton, Remi Lauvergne, Icaro Freitas Gomes and Pierre de Firmas

Price: FREE

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