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Will President Reagan's Energy Policy Lead Households to Conserve?

Eric S. Brown

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
When energy was cheap and easily available, consumers' paid little attention to their energy use and bills, so after the supply disruptions of the1970s, they were poorly equipped to deal with the changes they faced in energy prices and availability. During the 1970s, the federal government undertook various programs of education and assistance, including dissemination of printed information, establishment of energy standards for federally financed homes, and tax credits for use of alternative energy sources.









Notes - Risk Analysis of Alternative Energy Sources

Daniel R. Kazmer

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-11
No Abstract



Reply to "Risk Analysis of Alternative Energy Sources"

Miller B. Spangler

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-12
No Abstract



Wood Energy Bibliography

n/a

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-13
No Abstract





Notes - Comment on "Economic Implications of Mandated Efficiency..."

Stanley M. Besen and Leland L. Johnson

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-9
No Abstract



The United States' Role in the International Thermal Coal Market

D. Alec Sargent

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No1-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
Recent studies have projected a huge buildup in international thermal coal trade, including a major role for U.S. exports (World Coal Study, 1980; International Energy Agency, 1978; Department of Energy, 1979). Given high-priced and insecure oil supplies, opposition to nuclear power, and the high cost of domestic coal supplies in Western Europe and the Far East, there is little doubt that international thermal coal trade will increase substantially. However, the role of the United States is highly uncertain.



Notes - European Reliance of Soviet Gas Exports

Ferdinand E. Banks

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No3-6
No Abstract



A North American Gas Trade Model (GTM)

Mark A. Beltramo, Alan S. Manne, and John P. Weyant

Year: 1986
Volume: Volume 7
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol7-No3-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
Natural gas ranks second only to crude oil as a primary source of energy in North America, During recent years, gas has satisfied 25 percent of all energy requirements in the United States. Most of this gas has been produced domestically, but 5 to 10 percent has been supplied by pipeline imports from Canada and Mexico. Additional amounts could be provided by pipelines from Alaska or by LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports from overseas, but these facilities would be expensive, and their construction continues to be delayed. Transport costs are high, and geography plays a far more important role in international gas markets than in the oil markets. For this reason, we view the North American continent as a largely self-contained system.



Cuban Oil Reexports: Significance and Prospects

Jorge F. Perez-Lopez

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No1-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
Since the early 1970s, Cuba has been selling oil products, obtained largely from imported Soviet crude, in Western Europe for hard currency. Initially, these sales were relatively small and limited to refined products, such as naphtha. More recently, the magnitude of these reexports has grown significantly, and the range of exported products has expanded to include crude oil.



The Economics of International Oil Sharing

George Horwich and David Leo Weimer

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume 9
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-No4-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
Fifteen years after the 1973-74 oil embargo, two of the programs designed by consuming countries to cope with oil disruptions are still in place. One is the strategic stockpiles of oil owned or controlled by the governments of the industrial nations. The other is the oil-sharing plan of the International Energy Agency. In fact, both programs received their impetus from the IEA, which was formed in 1974 by the United States, Canada, most Western European countries (except France), Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. The TEA requires signatory countries to hold oil stocks equal to ninety days' imports of oil (interpreted generally as an amount over and above normal working stocks). This has largely been accomplished. Oil sharing, however, is to be imposed only in the event of oil-supply cutoffs of 7 percent or more to any individual member or the group as a whole. Although petitioned several times by individual countries, sharing has never been implemented. Neither has the program been systematically evaluated by a task force outside the IEA. This is the purpose of the study which this paper draws upon (Horwich and Weimer, eds., 1988).



Special Feature U.S.-Canadian Trade Agreement: An Energy Colloquium

Philip K. Verleger, Jr., Leonard Waverman, Andre Plourde, Arlon R. Tussing, Henry Lee, Jean-Thomas Bernard

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume 9
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-No4-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
The United States and Canada recently concluded a comprehensive agreement which calls for removing restrictions on trade between them, including energy. To explain the details of the energy portions of the agreement, we present by a series of comments by seven authors from both sides of the border. They deal with various energy sources (oil, gas, electricity and uranium) and with the situations peculiar to various geographic locations.



Cost-Effective Control Strategies for Energy-Related Transboundary Air Pollution in Western Europe

Heinz Welsch

Year: 1990
Volume: Volume 11
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol11-No2-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
In this paper a simulation model of the West European power plant industry, combined with transboundary source-receptor relationships, is used to determine cost-effective reduction rates for SO2 emissions in any one country so that certain, exogenously given, deposition reduction targets are attained. The overall costs implied by the proposed strategies, and their distribution among countries, are examined and compared to those associated with the traditional emission-standard approach. It is found that the cooperative and flexible strategies considered allow for overall cost savings of up to 60 percent, given the same degree of deposition reduction.



Efficient International Agreements for Reducing Emissions of CO2

Michael Hoel

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No2-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
International agreements are necessary to achieve significant reductions of emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Traditional agreements of the type "uniform percent reductions" have two disadvantages: in the first place, it would probably be difficult to get a sufficiently large participation in such an agreement, since it gives a distribution of costs of reducing emissions which may differ strongly from the advantages the countries have from avoiding climatic changes. In the second place, agreements of this type are generally not efficient.An international CO2 tar and tradeable CO2 quotas are two alternative schemes which have several common features, and which both are (almost) efficient under reasonable conditions. With appropriately chosen tax reimbursements in the case of a CO2 tax or initial distribution of quotas in the case of tradeable quotas, it is possible to make all, or at least almost al4 countries better off with the agreement than without.



Trade Liberalization, Transportation, and the Environment

H. Landis Gabel and Lars-Hendrik Roller

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No3-10
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is an empirical study of the consequences of European trade liberalization for international transport demand and its environmental impact. The European market is broken into nine trading blocks, and trade flow equations for 29 industries are estimated for the period 1975-1985. A simulation of the change in volumes of trade byindustry and the distances trade goods must move generates an estimate of the increased transport demand in each industry. Data on the modal composition of transportation in each industry then allow an aggregation of demand across industries by transport mode-truck, train, sea, and inland waterway.The study concludes that the greatest increases will be in the demand for international transportation by sea, but that in terms of land-based transportation, there will be a large relative shift from rail to road. This will have a major adverse environmental impact which is discussed in the paper.




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