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The Coming Age of Energy Taxes and Environmental Levies

Hans-Jochen Luhmann

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-NoSI-5
No Abstract



Analyzing Impacts of Potential Tax Policy Changes on U.S. Oil Security

James L. Sweeney and Michael J. Boskin

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-NoSI-8
No Abstract



Oil Production Outside OPEC and the Former Soviet Union: A Model Applied ot the U.S. and U.K.

John V. Mitchell

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume 15
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-NoSI-9
View Abstract

Abstract:
Oil production in the area outside OPEC and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) has grown steadily for the past 30 years. This growth is expected to continue, despite the decline in oil prices since 1985. The steady growth in production contrasts with dramatic swings in oil prices. Non-price factors such as policies, enterprise behavior, and technical phenomena are important. This article sketches a model for tracing their interaction over time. The model is tested against the very different histories of oil production in the U. S. and U. K. The main conclusion is that non-price factors are important and differ between countries: in the U.S., environmental policy, and in the U.K., tax policy have been critical in determining oil production. The model may be extended to countries dominated by state oil enterprises, which account for most of the remaining production in this area, but this would require country-by-country analysis.



International Petroleum Taxation in the 1990s

Alexander G. Kemp

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume 15
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-NoSI-16
View Abstract

Abstract:
Since the major oil price explosion and collapse over the last 20 years, host governments in producing countries have made substantial changes to their petroleum tax systems. In many cases, these changes have resulted in more profit related systems being established. These have an inherent flexibility which is more appropriate for an environment of fluctuating prices. They are generally not accurately targeted on economic rents, however, and if oil prices remain low further discretionary changes may be required. In some important countries reliance on old-style systems targeted on gross revenues still remains. These are not well adapted to an era of low oil prices, and investment disincentives are present.



Cost-Effective Climate Policy in a Small Country

Cathrine Hagem

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume15
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-No4-6
View Abstract

Abstract:
Unilateral action to curb CO2 emissions in a small country or a group of countries has only a limited effect on global CO2 emissions. However, it could be a first step toward a broader climate treaty. So far, unilateral commitments have been aimed at reducing national consumption of fossil fuels. A country that produces and consumes fossil fuels can also influence the global CO2 emissions by reducing its production. The estimated cost of reducing national CO2 emissions in Norway, through a reduction in fossil fuel consumption, is presented in a report from the Environmental Tax Committee (1992). In this paper, that cost is compared with an estimated cost of reducing fossil fuel production. The calculation reveals that it could be less costly to reduce the production than the consumption, given that the effect on global CO2 emissions is identical.



Fundamental U.S. Tax Reform and Energy Markets

Dale W. Jorgenson and Peter J. Wilcoxen

Year: 1997
Volume: Volume18
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol18-No3-1
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Abstract:
This paper presents a new intertemporal general equilibrium model of the U. S. economy incorporating a detailed representation of U.S. tax structure. We employ the model to analyze the impact of fundamental tax reform on U.S. energy markets. More rapid economic growth would dominate energy conservation, leading to greater energy consumption and higher carbon emissions.



The Political Economy of Motor-Fuel Taxation

Rajeev K. Goel and Michael A. Nelson

Year: 1999
Volume: Volume20
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol20-No1-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper examines the political and economic underpinnings of gasoline tax policy. The theoretical model extends the earlier work of Hettich and Winer (1988) to flush out the effect of a change in the pre-tax price of a taxable activity on the politically optimal tax rate. Using a large cross-sectional sample of U.S. states over 1960-94, the empirical model tests the predictions of the theoretical model within the context of the state tax policy on gasoline. While simultaneously controlling for other politico-economic influences, we find that the influence of changes in gas prices on tax rates is negative. To our knowledge, this is the first study to include a fully developed theoretical model and its empirical application to the gasoline market for a test of the votemaximizing model of tax policy.



Achieving Gasoline Price Stability in the U.S.: A Modest Proposal

Mark S. LeClair

Year: 2006
Volume: Volume 27
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol27-No2-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
The recent volatility of short-run gasoline prices in the United States has resulted in calls for the government to intervene. This paper details a simple means of reducing that variability, utilizing federal tax policies, without eliminating the signaling role of prices in the medium- to long-term. If properly implemented, the gyrations in gas prices could be largely removed, with little impact on the revenue that the federal government generates through taxation. If applied to the markets in nations that have significantly higher gasoline taxes, essentially all price volatility could be removed.





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