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Long Memory in Oil and Refined Products Markets

Kyongwook Choi and Shawkat Hammoudeh

Year: 2009
Volume: Volume 30
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol30-No2-5
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Abstract:
We test for the presence of long memory in daily oil and refined products prices absolute return, squared return and conditional volatility, using several parametric and semiparametric methods. This study finds strong evidence of long memory (LM) in the daily absolute and squared spot and futures returns for crude oil, gasoline and heating oil but at different degrees. The FIGARCH model also demonstrates strong evidence of LM for volatility for most of oil and products prices returns, with also different resilience levels. Structural breaks have only the partial effects of slightly reducing persistence for just absolute and squared returns. Examining the forecasting behavior of two competing models, the less parsimonious ARFIMA which satisfies the LM property, and the parsimonious ARMA with short-term processes, the ARFIMA model provides significantly better out-of-sample forecasts at all forecasting horizons for all three petroleum types.



Global LNG Pricing Terms and Revisions: An Empirical Analysis

Mark Agerton

Year: 2017
Volume: Volume 38
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.38.1.mage
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Abstract:
Asian long-term contracts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) are generally thought to index LNG prices to oil prices. This should mean that LNG and oil prices are cointegrated. However, statistical evidence for cointegration using Japanese data is not strong. To resolve this puzzle, I examine 16 Japanese, South Korean, Taiwanese, and Spanish LNG import price series and allow for multiple, unknown structural breaks in the relationship to oil prices. This resolves the puzzle, and I provide estimates for the timing of breaks and the underlying average pricing terms. I relate these to count, volume, and duration data on long-term contracts and discuss how to interpret econometric estimates in light of contract data. This paper complements existing work on global gas market integration, which largely ignores how discrete changes in oil-indexed long-term contracts will affect empirical relationships.



How Persistent are Shocks to Energy Prices?

Atanu Ghoshray

Year: 2018
Volume: Volume 39
Number: Special Issue 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.39.SI1.agho
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Abstract:
Whether shocks to energy prices are permanent or transitory remains a contentious issue. This may result from mis-specification of the econometric tests, due for example to the uncertainty over the presence of a trend, or the possible presence of structural breaks and non-stationary volatility in the data. This paper makes a contribution by addressing the underlying characteristics of energy price data that influence such econometric tests. First, we detect whether the data are characterised by non-stationary volatility and possible trend breaks. The next step involves employing novel unit root tests that unify the underlying characteristics, such as trend break and/or nonstationary volatility, of the data. We conclude shocks to energy prices are not transitory. We further decompose a benchmark oil price and its demand and supply components into their permanent and transitory components and compute the cross correlations to find that they conform to standard theories of commodity storage models.



Closer to One Great Pool? Evidence from Structural Breaks in Oil Price Differentials

Michael Plante and Grant Strickler

Year: 2021
Volume: Volume 42
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.42.2.mpla
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Abstract:
We show that the oil market has become closer to "one great pool," in the sense that price differentials between crude oils of different qualities have generally become smaller over time. We document, in particular, that many of these price differentials experienced a major structural break in or around 2008, after which there was a marked reduction in their means and volatilities. Differentials between residual fuel oil, a low-quality fuel, and higher-valued products, such as gasoline and diesel, experienced similar breaks during the same time period. A growing ability of the global refinery sector to process lower-quality crude oil and the U.S. shale boom, which has unexpectedly boosted the supply of high-quality crude oil, are two factors consistent with these changes. Differentials between crude oils of similar quality in general did not experience breaks in or around 2008, although we do find evidence of breaks at other times.





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