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Determinants of Energy Use in Institutional Buildings: A Minnesota Example

Eric Hirst

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No1-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
Energy use data are usually disaggregated by major end-use sector: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation. Generally speak-ing, data are weakest for the commercial sector, perhaps because this sector is often defined as a residual (i.e., that portion of the economy not included in the other sectors). However, energy use in commercial buildings accounts for about 15 percent of total U.S. energy use and is grow-ing more rapidly than energy use in other sectors. For example, commercial energy use amounted to almost 10 QBtu (10 EJ) in 1979; the average growth rate in commercial sector energy use was 1 percent per year between 1973 and 1979, compared with a growth rate of 0.3 percent per year for total U.S. energy use [1; 8].



Notes - Sense and Nonsense About World Oil

M. A. Adelman

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No1-13
No Abstract



Notes - A Comparison of the Costs and the Results in the On/Offshore Search for Oil and Gas

Jon A. Rasmussen and Michael J. Piette

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No1-11
No Abstract



Notes - Public Willingness to Invest in Household Weatherization

Marvin E. Olsen and Christopher Cluett

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No1-12
No Abstract







Residential Energy Use in the OECD

Lee Schipper and Andrea N. Ketoff

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-6
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Abstract:
In this article we describe the evolution of residential energy use in OECD countries over the 1970-1982 period. We focus on European countries but refer also to findings for the United States, Canada, and Japan. We quantify the changes in energy consumption (particularly those that occurred in response to the great price shocks of 1973-1974 and 1979-1981), assess the permanency of these changes through 1982, and speculate on trends through 1983 on the basis of preliminary data. This analysis summarizes the results of a continuing project (Schipper, Ketoff, and Kahane, 1985) to identify, analyze, and monitor residential energy use in nearly a dozen OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States).



Energy Prospects and Policies in the PRC

Lu Yingzhong

Year: 1986
Volume: Volume 7
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol7-No3-7
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Abstract:
Commercial energy consumption (excluding rural areas) in the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1983 amounted to some 656 million tons coal equivalent (tce), third largest in the world. In contrast to most developed and developing countries (except the USSR and the OPEC nations), the PRC is able to meet all its commercial energy needs from a variety of domestic sources. Starting from the very low level of 1949 (when the present regime came to power), total energy production increased by 27.65 times, more rapidly than the gross national product (19.9 times). Energy consumption per capita also has increased substantially-13.6 times during the period. However, it is still relatively low-640 kgce in 1980 as against the world average of about 2200 kgce. Further sizable demand increases are bound to occur as the PRC's development proceeds.



Transport and Home Energy Use in Cities of the Developing Countries: A Review

Jayant Sathaye and Stephen Meyers

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-NoSI-5
No Abstract



Thermal and Economic Measures of Energy Use: Differences and Implications

Jean-Thomas Bernard and Pierre Cauchon

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No2-9
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Abstract:
Statistical agencies often report aggregate energy use by expressing different energy types on a common basis with thermal conversion factors. Before the energy crisis of the 1970s Turvey and Nobay (1965) indicated some pitfalls associated with thermal conversion factors in the analysis of aggregate energy use. This point has been emphasized again by Berndt (1978). More recently Hong (1983) compared two Divisia indexes of energy use-one of the expenditure shares and the other with thermal shares-and he found the two indexes behaved differently in the United States from 1950 to 1978. The relationship between the relative prices of energy types, which change over time, and their relative thermal contents, which are usually taken to be constant, explains why these two measures of energy use follow different paths.



Solving the Energy Problems in Developing Countries

Jose Goldemberg

Year: 1990
Volume: Volume 11
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol11-No1-4
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Abstract:
The industrialized nations have shown a remarkable ability to face the energy crisis of the 1970s by a combination of strategies which led in effect to the destruction of the OPEC cartel. The most important of these strategies was the reduction in oil imports made possible by the adoption of energy conserving technologies. In addition to that there was a remarkable shift from the use of oil to electricity which implies also a more efficient use of energy. While thermal cycles such as internal explosion motors used in automobiles convert only some 30 percent of the energy of the fuel into motive power in the wheels, electricity (once produced) can be converted into motive power with an efficiency of almost 100 percent. Of course the production of electricity from coal or oil goes also through a thermal cycle where energy is lost but the efficiency of conversion has been rising continuously, as shown in Figure 1. This shows the evolution of the thermal efficiency of British electrical generating stations (56 thermal power plants burning coal with a total generating capacity of 46.7 OW). In the period 1970-1985 the efficiency increased from 30 percent to 35 percent, equivalent in reality to an additional 10 mW of coal burning capacity.



Manufacturing Energy Use in Eight OECD Countries: Trends through 1988

Richard B. Howarth and Lee Schipper

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No4-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper reviews the evolution of manufacturing energy use in eight industrialized nations: West Germany, Denmark, France, Japan, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Manufacturing energy use fell in these nations by 16% between 1973 and 1988 while manufacturing value-added increased by 41%. Reduced energy intensities in six industry groups -- paper and pulp; chemicals; stone, clay and glass; iron and steel; nonferrous metals; and other manufacturing -- were the primary source of this apparent decoupling of energy use and output. Between 1973 and 1988, intensity reductions would have driven down sectoral energy use by 32% if the level and composition of output had remained constant. Structural change, or shifts in the product mi, would have reduced energy use by 11% if the total level of output and the energy intensities of each industry group had remained constant.



Structural Changes and Energy Consumption in the Japanese Economy 1975-95: An Input-Output Analysis

Xiaoli Han and TK. Lakshmanan

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume15
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-No3-9
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper analyzes the effects of the pervasive structural changes in the Japanese economy on its energy intensity in the decade 1975-85. It advances the energy input-output (I-O) structural decomposition analysis (SDA) in two ways. First, it introduces a double denominator method to relax the assumption that all electricity is derived from fossil fuels in energy I-O analysis. Second, it develops a model which identifies explicitly the effect of energy imports. The application of our model to the Japanese experience suggested that changes in final demand structure contributed more to reducing the energy intensity of the economy than the much discussed effects of changes in technology. The overall decline in the energy intensity of the economy was accompanied by drastic shifts in the fuel mix of its energy supply, in particular, a substitution of oil by natural gas.



Income Distribution Effects of Electric Utility DSM Programs

Ronald J. Sutherland

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume15
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-No4-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper uses the Residential Energy Consumption Survey undertaken by the Energy Information Administration in 1990 to estimate the statistical association between household income and participation in electric utility energy conservation programs and the association between participation and the electricity consumption. The results indicate that utility rebates, energy audits, load management programs and other conservation measures tend to be undertaken at greater frequency by high income households than by low income households. Participants in conservation programs tend to occupy relatively new and energy efficient residences and undertake conservation measures other than utility programs, which suggests that utility sponsored programs are substitutes for other conservation investments. Electricity consumption during 1990 is not significantly less for households participating in utility programs than for nonparticipants, which also implies that utility conservation programs are displacing other conservation investments. Apparently, utility programs are not avoiding the costs of new construction and instead are transferring wealth, particularly to high income participating households.




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