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Risks and Psychic Costs of Alternative Energy Sources for Generating Electricity

Miller B. Spangler

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No1-3
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Abstract:
According to public opinion polls, many people in the United States do not agree that there is truly an energy crisis. President Carter referred to it as an "invisible" crisis in the National Energy Plan of 1977.



Air Quality Implications of a Nuclear Moratorium: An Alternative Analysis

Anthony Bopp, Verne Loose

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No3-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
The role of nuclear power in the nation's energy future is and probably will continue to be one of the principal energy policy issues in the United States. Relatively inexpensive coal reserves and escalating costs of light water reactors have eroded a once-large cost advantage enjoyed by nuclear technologies. While the relative cost advantage of nuclear over coal electric power has become a subject of debate, other less concrete issues have surfaced and often overshadow economic arguments. Antinuclear "forces" generally view the technology as the essence of what they consider wrong with modern technological society. Pronuclear "forces" counter that much fear associated with nuclear power derives from the newness of the technology and that the air quality and possible economic gains associated with nuclear power make it the preferable choice for future electricity generation.



Nuclear Power for Developing Countries: Attainable Within This Century?

Eli B. Roth

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No2-4
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Abstract:
To use or not to use nuclear power for generating electricity has, in many parts of the world, become as much an emotional issue as an economic or technical one. Probably this is even more so in developed than in developing countries. The menacing worldwide energy misallocations and shortages have been the subject of a number of conferences, workshops, articles, studies, and - in the United States at least - of pronouncements by advocates ranging in style and substance from Jane Fonda to Barry Commoner to Edward Teller. It is not necessary to take sides here on the narrower question of whether any country in particular should try to use nuclear power for electricity or should try to avoid it. But except perhaps for antinuclear diehards, surely anyone concerned with the plight of developing countries, whose other energy resources are often wholly inadequate, must be interested in finding a satisfactory way to open up for those countries, or to keep open, the nuclear option.



A Technology Choice for Model Electricity Generation

Ralph L. Keeney

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-NoSI-2
No Abstract



The Simple Economics of Industrial Cogeneration

Paul L. Joskow and Donald R. Jones

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No1-1
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Abstract:
Rising energy prices and dependence on insecure supplies of foreign petroleum have led energy consumers and energy policymakers to seek methods to use energy more efficiently. Industrial cogeneration has frequently been seen as such a method. By generating electricity in conjunction with the production of steam for industrial processes, less energy is used than when process steam and electricity are produced separately. Most recent U.S. energy policy studies have spoken favorably about the potential for cogeneration.' Some specific studies have indicated opportunities to replace central station electric power generation with industrial cogeneration capacity, and, in the process, to reduce domestic energy consumption substantially.



Investment in Geothermal Direct Heat Applications

William F. Hederman, Jr. and Laura Cohen Gordon

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No1-5
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Abstract:
As a result of substantial increases in oil- and gas-supply prices (and despite recent softening of these prices), selected uses of geothermal energy have become competitive with conventional fuels. Geothermal energy includes resources with a wide range of temperatures. These resources are suitable for numerous applications from low-temperature heating to the production of high-temperature steam for use in generating electricity.



Deregulating the Generation of Electricity Through the Creation of Spot Markets for Bulk Power

Roger E. Bohn, Bennett W. Golub, Richard D. Tabors, and Fred C. Schweppet

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No2-5
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Abstract:
Many observers are dissatisfied with the current condition of privately owned electric utilities in the United States. Numerous pro-posals have been made for change, including suggestions to deregulate all or part of the industry.' Those who favor deregulation argue that electric power systems, and especially electric generation, may no longer be natural monopolies. Furthermore, under the present regulatory regime, many utilities are refraining from investing, which is not in the best interests of their customers.2 Others, however, worry that quality and reliability of1. See Golub (1982, Chapter 2) for a review of the literature on deregulating electricutilities.2. A major electric utility's internal planning documents discussed the problem as follows. The ability to raise new capital is finite, and is especially limited given the current financial condition, the economy, and the regulatory climate. Thus, although the recommended investments ... will lead to a correct economic decision ... they may not be desirable due to other constraints [on the company] ... The document goes on to report that the company is not investing in coal projects, although such projects' long-term cost is one-third less than current anticipated generating costs.



Cogeneration in the People's Republic of China

Qu Yu

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No2-9
View Abstract

Abstract:
Cogeneration refers to the combined generation of heat and electric power. A common application is district heating. Cogeneration's ad-vantage stems from savings in investment and operating expenditures, and frequently also from greater reliability. It is geographically more restricted than large electricity networks since heat losses limit its distance from the generating station. Its optimal applications are therefore in load-intensive regions.



Scale Economies and Reliability in the Electric Power Industry

H. S. Burners, R. G. Cummings, and Verne W. Loose

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No1-13
View Abstract

Abstract:
Studies concerning scale economies in the electric power industry have focused on a wide range of variables relevant to possible ways of increasing the nation's electricity generating capacity. In terms of scale economies per se, results from economic studies have supported current trends toward the construction of increasingly large generating units (Abdulkarim and Lucas 1977; Lomas 1952; and Ling 1964). Economies of scale for generating units and generating plants are attributed to such factors as nonproportionalities between plant capacity and site costs, lesser leakages and power losses obtained in larger generating units, operating and maintenance costs that increase less than proportionally with unit size, scale economies in coal-handling facilities, and economies in transmission (see particularly Lomas 1952; Ling 1964; Cicchetti, Gillen, and Smolansky 1977)) Ramifications of scale economies have been expanded to include such things as technological change (Barzel 1974, Dhrymes and Kurz 1964), interfuel substitutions (Atkinson and Halvorsen 1976) and regulatory aspects (Averch and Johnson 1962; Joskow 1974).



The Economic Impact of Coal-Fired Versus Nuclear Power Plants: An Application of a General Equilibrium Model

Klaus Conrad and Iris Henseler-Unger

Year: 1986
Volume: Volume 7
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol7-No4-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years, the literature in the field of general equilibrium modeling has increased. For long-term energy projections, general equilibrium models are more adequate than standard econometrics in evaluating alternative economic policies in a theoretically consistent framework. The well-known structure and economic mechanism of those models makes it easier to analyze structural changes of prices and quantities demanded or supplied for a given data set of an economy, national income accounts figures, and trade balance effects. The dynamic formulation of these models via investment decisions and capital formation also enables an intertemporal interpretation of structural adjustment and growth processes.




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