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Gasoline Demand with Heterogeneity in Household Responses

Zia Wadud, Daniel J. Graham and Robert B. Noland

Year: 2010
Volume: Volume 31
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol31-No1-3
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Abstract:
Fuel demand elasticities to determine consumer responses to tax increases or price shocks are typically based on aggregate data. The literature generally provides one elasticity estimate for each country, assuming similar response for all households. However, it is possible that different households can have different responses to the same stimuli depending on the household characteristics. Assuming a single elasticity for all households may fail to capture the detailed distributional effect on different socio-economic groups, which is often needed to fully understand the impact of fuel tax measures. This paper presents results from a household level gasoline demand model which accommodates variation in price and income elasticity with increasing income as well as for different socio-economic characteristics in the USA. We find substantial heterogeneity in price and income elasticities based on demographic groupings and income groups. Results of a distributional analysis for a gasoline tax are also presented using the heterogeneous responses.



An Examination of How Energy Efficiency Incentives Are Distributed Across Income Groups

Grant D. Jacobsen

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 6
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.6.gjac
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Abstract:
Many policies lead to the provision of incentives, such as rebates or tax credits, to consumers for the purchase of products that have high energy efficiency. This paper investigates how these incentives are distributed across income groups for three types of subsidies (manufacturer or retailer rebates, utility rebates, and tax credits) and eight types of equipment. While incentives are always concentrated in higher-income households, there is substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the concentration depending on how incentives are structured. Tax credits are the type of subsidy that is most concentrated in higher-income households and utility rebates are the least. Incentives for appliances that are not universally-owned, including dishwashers and clotheswashers, are more concentrated than are incentives for other types of equipment. Differences across income groups in the rates of equipment presence and turnover, willingness to purchase Energy Star models, and rates of homeownership contribute to the concentration. After controlling for these factors, utility rebates are no longer concentrated in higher-income households, but manufacturer / retailer rebates and tax credits remain so.



Renewable Energy Targets in the Context of the EU ETS: Whom do They Benefit Exactly?

Florian Landis and Peter Heindl

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 6
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.6.flan
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Abstract:
We study how European climate and energy policy targets affect different member states and households of different income quintiles within the member states. We find that renewable energy targets in power generation, by reducing eu ets permit prices, may make net permit exporters worse off and net permit importers better off. This effect appears to dominate the efficiency cost of increasing the share of energy provided by renewable energy sources in the countries that adopt such targets. While an increase in prices for energy commodities, which is entailed by the policies in question, affects households in low income quintiles the most, recycling revenues from climate policy allows governments to compensate them for the losses. If renewable targets reduce the revenues from ets permit auctions, member states with large allocations of auctionable permits will lose some of the ability to do so.





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