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Tax Reform and Energy in the Philippines Economy: A General Equilibrium Computation

Roy G. Boyd, Khosrow Doroodian, and Prapassorn Udomvaech

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume15
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-No2-8
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Abstract:
This paper examines how energy tax cuts, offset with income tax increases, affect production, consumption, and total welfare in the Philippines economy. Our results show that energy tax cuts expand the energy and nonmetal mining sectors, but decrease output in the manufacturing, agricultural, and metal mining sectors. Consumption o all goods and services combined increases as the amount of energy tax reduction increases. Our welfare results, however, are mixed. Mile the welfare of the mid- and high-income levels increases, that of the lowest income level decreases. These results are robust with respect to changes in the elasticity of substitution in energy production as well as the elasticity of substitution in consumer demand. From the standpoint of economic efficiency, a policy such as this would enhance growth and aggregate income. From an equity standpoint, however, this policy is highly regressive in spite of the fact that the richest households pay proportionately more to finance the energy tax reduction.



Fundamental U.S. Tax Reform and Energy Markets

Dale W. Jorgenson and Peter J. Wilcoxen

Year: 1997
Volume: Volume18
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol18-No3-1
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Abstract:
This paper presents a new intertemporal general equilibrium model of the U. S. economy incorporating a detailed representation of U.S. tax structure. We employ the model to analyze the impact of fundamental tax reform on U.S. energy markets. More rapid economic growth would dominate energy conservation, leading to greater energy consumption and higher carbon emissions.



Are Differentiated Carbon Taxes Inefficient? A General Equilibrium Analysis

Brita Bye and Karine Nyborg

Year: 2003
Volume: Volume24
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol24-No2-4
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Abstract:
Revenue-raising environmental policy instruments, such as carbon taxes, tend to be politically controversial. In practice, carbon taxes are often differentiated between polluters, implying unequal marginal abatement costs. Grandfathered tradeable permits seem less controversial; this instrument yields equal marginal abatement costs, but does not raise revenue. We compare a system of differentiated carbon taxes, exemplified by the current Norwegian carbon tax regime, to uniform carbon taxation and grandfathered tradeable emission permits. In this particular case, differentiated taxes are welfare superior to grandfathered permits. Nevertheless, uniform carbon taxes outperform both.





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