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Supply Function Equilibrium with Asymmetric Capacities and Constant Marginal Costs

Par Holmberg

Year: 2007
Volume: Volume 28
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol28-No2-3
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Abstract:
This paper analytically derives a Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) of a real-time electricity market with multiple firms and asymmetric production capacities. There is a unique SFE, which is piece-wise symmetric when firms have identical constant marginal costs. It is believed that some of the properties of the derived SFE are valid for real-time markets in general. Firms� capacity constraints bind at different prices (i). Still, firms with non-binding capacity constraints have smooth residual demand (ii). Approximating an asymmetric real-time market with a symmetric one, tends to overestimate mark-ups for small positive imbalances and underestimate mark-ups for large positive imbalances (iii).



Supply Function Competition in the Spanish Wholesale Electricity Market

Aitor Ciarreta and Maria Paz Espinosa

Year: 2010
Volume: Volume 31
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol31-No4-6
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Abstract:
We represent the Spanish wholesale market as a supply function com�petition model. Theoretically, the larger generators� supply curves for each plant should be to the left of the supply curves of plants owned by smaller generators. We test this prediction for fuel plants using data from the Spanish Market Op�erator (OMEL) from January 2002 to December 2005. Our empirical results are consistent with the model predictions and suggest that the supply function model better fits data than a discrete-bid auction model since large generators behave as price-makers irrespective whether they are the marginal firms at the auction.



Strategic Forward Contracting in the Wholesale Electricity Market

Pär Holmberg

Year: 2011
Volume: Volume 32
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol32-No1-7
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Abstract:
This paper analyses a wholesale electricity market with supply function competition. Trade in the forward and spot markets is represented by a two-stage game, and its subgame perfect Nash equilibrium (SPNE) is characterized. It is verified that increased forward sales of a producer constitute a credible commitment to aggressive spot market bidding. The paper identifies market situations when this pro-competitive commitment is unilaterally profitable for the producer. It is also proven that a producer has incentives to sell in the forward market in order to reduce competitors' forward sales, which softens their spot market offers.





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