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(Showing results 1 to 8 of 8)



Energy and Economic Interaction in Thailand

John C Sheerin

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No1-8
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Abstract:
The rapid rate of economic growth experienced in Thailand through the mid-1980s has been associated with an even more rapid use of energy as a factor input. This paper decomposes total change in energy into output, structural change and conservations effects. In the industrial sector, the rate of expansion in total energy inputs has been sharply reduced due to a structural change away from agricultural and manufacturing dominance and by a significant increase in the efficiency of energy use. In the household sector, the energy impacts of the expansion in the use of appliances were more than offset by the economies associated with delivered energy forms, and by other apparent adjustments in connection with higher energy costs.



Structural Changes and Energy Consumption in the Japanese Economy 1975-95: An Input-Output Analysis

Xiaoli Han and TK. Lakshmanan

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume15
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-No3-9
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Abstract:
This paper analyzes the effects of the pervasive structural changes in the Japanese economy on its energy intensity in the decade 1975-85. It advances the energy input-output (I-O) structural decomposition analysis (SDA) in two ways. First, it introduces a double denominator method to relax the assumption that all electricity is derived from fossil fuels in energy I-O analysis. Second, it develops a model which identifies explicitly the effect of energy imports. The application of our model to the Japanese experience suggested that changes in final demand structure contributed more to reducing the energy intensity of the economy than the much discussed effects of changes in technology. The overall decline in the energy intensity of the economy was accompanied by drastic shifts in the fuel mix of its energy supply, in particular, a substitution of oil by natural gas.



Endogenous Structural Change and Climate Targets Modeling Experiments with Imaclim-R

Renaud Crassous, Jean-Charles Hourcade, Olivier Sassi

Year: 2006
Volume: Endogenous Technological Change
Number: Special Issue #1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-VolSI2006-NoSI1-13
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Abstract:
This paper envisages endogenous technical change that results from the interplay between the economic growth engine, consumption, technology and localization patterns. We perform numerical simulations with the recursive dynamic general equilibrium model Imaclim-R to study how modeling induced technical change affects costs of CO2 stabilization. Imaclim-R incorporates innovative specifications about final consumption of transportation and energy to represent critical stylized facts such as rebound effects and demand induction by infrastructures and equipments. Doing so brings to light how induced technical change may not only lower stabilization costs thanks to pure technological progress, but also trigger induction of final demand�effects critical to both the level of the carbon tax and the costs of policy given a specific stabilization target. Finally, we study the sensitivity of total stabilization costs to various parameters including both technical assumptions as accelerated turnover of equipments and non-energy choices as alternative infrastructure policies.



Removing Policy-based Comparative Advantage for Energy Intensive Production: Necessary Adjustments of the Real Exchange Rate and Industry Structure

Torstein Bye and Erling Erling Holmoy

Year: 2010
Volume: Volume 31
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol31-No1-8
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Abstract:
Increased transmission capacity and diminishing returns to scale in power production capacities have raised the opportunity cost of electricity in many countries. The resulting market changes have often been counteracted by policy, i.e. subsidized electricity prices to for instance energy intensive industries. Firm data, emphasizing cost heterogeneity, confirm that a large share of Norwegian energy intensive firms would not be profitable in the long run if they lose their present electricity subsidies. However, CGE estimates show that removing the subsidies allows a tax cut that is more than sufficient to bring about the changes in relative prices needed to restore internal and external balances.



Structural Change and U.S. Energy Use: Recent Patterns

Hillard G. Huntington

Year: 2010
Volume: Volume 31
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol31-No3-2
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Abstract:
The role of structural change in energy use patterns is evaluated using a recently developed data set based upon the NAICS codes for the United States. Shifts between 65 industries in the commercial, industrial and transportation sectors account for almost 40 percent of the reduction in the US economy�s aggregate energy intensity over the 1997-2006 period. Excluding the transportation industries, these shifts account for 54 percent of the total effect. These estimates are more than twice the magnitude of those due to shifts between five major sectors of the economy. Since all these estimates use the preferred Fisher index, the results are more likely due to the most recently available data than to methodological issues like the decomposition approach.



Inside the Black Box: the Price Linkage and Transmission between Energy and Agricultural Markets

Xiaodong Du and Lihong Lu McPhail

Year: 2012
Volume: Volume 33
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.33.2.8
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Abstract:
Motivated by strong comovement and increasing volatility of energy and agricultural prices, we examine dynamic evolutions of ethanol, gasoline, and corn prices over the period of March 2005-March 2011. A structural change is found around March 2008 in the pairwise dynamic correlations between the prices in a multivariate GARCH model. A structural VAR (SVAR) model is then estimated on two subsamples, one before and one after the identified change point. Using the novel method of identification through heteroscedasticity, we exploit the time-varying price volatilities to fully identify the SVAR model. In the more recent period, ethanol, gasoline, and corn prices are found to be more closely linked with a strengthened corn-ethanol relation, which can be largely explained by the new developments of the biofuel industry and related policy instruments. Variance decomposition shows that for each market a significant and relatively large share of the price variation could be explained by the price changes in the other two markets. The results are robust to the inclusion of seasonal dummies and various representative macroeconomic and financial indicators. Keywords: Biofuel, Identification through heteroscedasticity, Structural change, Structural VAR



International Specialization, Structural Change and the Evolution of Manufacturing Energy Intensity in OECD Countries

Peter Mulder

Year: 2015
Volume: Volume 36
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.36.3.pmul
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Abstract:
We present new evidence that changes in sector structure explain a considerable and increasing part of Manufacturing energy intensity trends across 19 OECD countries. We show that cross-country convergence of Manufacturing energy intensity levels is caused by efficiency improvements in lagging countries, while undermined by increasing international differences in sector structure. Particularly, we find that efficiency-driven catching-up processes only began to dominate the diverging impact of structural changes after 1995, reversing gradual cross-country divergence of Manufacturing energy intensity levels into rapid convergence. Subsequently, we link sector structure dynamics to changing global production patterns under influence of international trade and specialization. We conclude that increasing trade and market integration helped reducing energy productivity gaps across countries, despite the contribution of increasing specialization to growing cross-country variation in sector structure. These trends are mainly driven by energy-intensive sectors, while various countries specialize in sectors for which they do not have a comparative energy productivity advantage.



Directed Technical Change and Energy Intensity Dynamics: Structural Change vs. Energy Efficiency

Christian Haas and Karol Kempa

Year: 2018
Volume: Volume 39
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.39.4.chaa
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Abstract:
This paper uses a model with Directed Technical Change to theoretically analyse observable heterogeneous energy intensity developments. Based on the empirical evidence, we decompose changes in aggregate energy intensity into structural changes in the economy (structural effect) and within-sector energy efficiency improvements (efficiency effect). The relative importance of these effects is determined by energy price growth and sectoral productivities that drive the direction of technical change. When research is directed to the labour-intensive sector, the structural effect is the main driver of energy intensity dynamics. In contrast, the efficiency effect dominates energy intensity developments, when research is directed to energy-intensive industries. Increasing energy price generally leads to lower energy intensities and temporal energy price shocks might induce a permanent redirection of innovation activities. We calibrate the model to empirical data and simulate energy intensity developments across countries. The results of our very stylised model are largely consistent with empirical evidence.





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